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      Antibacterial and electrochemical evaluation of electrospun polyethersulfone/silver composites as highly persistent nanomaterials

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          Abstract

          Silver‐based antibacterial nanoparticles have demonstrated indices of possible bacterial resistance after consecutive periods of time, limiting their application on antibacterial surfaces. In this work, we fabricate electrospun composites of polyethersulfone (PES) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), displaying highly‐persistent antibacterial behavior after 10 bacterial expositions. The herein‐reported membranes were synthesized by changing the Ag loading (0.05, 0.5, and 5 wt%), adding polyvinylpyrrolidone as a dispersion promoter, and the resulting composites were evaluated after a different number of bacterial expositions against Escherichia coli ( E. coli) aiming to determine their bacterial tolerance. SEM micrographs revealed that the PES fiber diameters decreased as a function of the silver content from 798 to 398 nm, attributed to the conductivity and the viscosity improvement by AgNPs introduction in the polymer solution during the electrospun process. Moreover, the surface roughness (determined by atomic force microscopy) and the contact angle changed with the Ag content, increasing the hydrophilic behavior and promoting a better interaction with the bacteria suspended in the solution. Antibacterial activity kinetics of PES/AgNPs fibers showed 75% bacterial inhibition against E. coli in the composite with 0.5 wt% Ag after 3 h of exposition, and 75% after 1.5 h in composites with 5 wt% of Ag. The ca. 25% survival bacteria were used for consecutive bacterial tolerance assays, where the antibacterial behavior was constant after 10 expositions. Interestingly, electrochemical tests confirmed that PES fibers could control the silver‐releasing process. Thus, PES/AgNPs composites avoid the bacterial adaptation process, which makes them suitable as functional antimicrobial nanomaterials.

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          Electrospinning and Electrospun Nanofibers: Methods, Materials, and Applications

          Electrospinning is a versatile and viable technique for generating ultrathin fibers. Remarkable progress has been made with regard to the development of electrospinning methods and engineering of electrospun nanofibers to suit or enable various applications. We aim to provide a comprehensive overview of electrospinning, including the principle, methods, materials, and applications. We begin with a brief introduction to the early history of electrospinning, followed by discussion of its principle and typical apparatus. We then discuss its renaissance over the past two decades as a powerful technology for the production of nanofibers with diversified compositions, structures, and properties. Afterward, we discuss the applications of electrospun nanofibers, including their use as “smart” mats, filtration membranes, catalytic supports, energy harvesting/conversion/storage components, and photonic and electronic devices, as well as biomedical scaffolds. We highlight the most relevant and recent advances related to the applications of electrospun nanofibers by focusing on the most representative examples. We also offer perspectives on the challenges, opportunities, and new directions for future development. At the end, we discuss approaches to the scale-up production of electrospun nanofibers and briefly discuss various types of commercial products based on electrospun nanofibers that have found widespread use in our everyday life.
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            Bacterial silver resistance: molecular biology and uses and misuses of silver compounds.

            Resistance to silver compounds as determined by bacterial plasmids and genes has been defined by molecular genetics. Silver resistance conferred by the Salmonella plasmid pMGH100 involves nine genes in three transcription units. A sensor/responder (SilRS) two-component transcriptional regulatory system governs synthesis of a periplasmic Ag(I)-binding protein (SilE) and two efflux pumps (a P-type ATPase (SilP) plus a three-protein chemiosmotic RND Ag(I)/H+ exchange system (SilCBA)). The same genes were identified on five of 19 additional IncH incompatibility class plasmids but thus far not on other plasmids. Of 70 random enteric isolates from a local hospital, isolates from catheters and other Ag-exposed sites, and total genomes of enteric bacteria, 10 have recognizable sil genes. The centrally located six genes are found and functional in the chromosome of Escherichia coli K-12, and also occur on the genome of E. coli O157:H7. The use of molecular epidemiological tools will establish the range and diversity of such resistance systems in clinical and non-clinical sources. Silver compounds are used widely as effective antimicrobial agents to combat pathogens (bacteria, viruses and eukaryotic microorganisms) in the clinic and for public health hygiene. Silver cations (Ag+) are microcidal at low concentrations and used to treat burns, wounds and ulcers. Ag is used to coat catheters to retard microbial biofilm development. Ag is used in hygiene products including face creams, "alternative medicine" health supplements, supermarket products for washing vegetables, and water filtration cartridges. Ag is generally without adverse effects for humans, and argyria (irreversible discoloration of the skin resulting from subepithelial silver deposits) is rare and mostly of cosmetic concern.
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              The innate immune response to bacterial flagellin is mediated by Toll-like receptor 5.

              The innate immune system recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, but not on the host. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize PAMPs and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. Flagellin, a principal component of bacterial flagella, is a virulence factor that is recognized by the innate immune system in organisms as diverse as flies, plants and mammals. Here we report that mammalian TLR5 recognizes bacterial flagellin from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that activation of the receptor mobilizes the nuclear factor NF-kappaB and stimulates tumour necrosis factor-alpha production. TLR5-stimulating activity was purified from Listeria monocytogenes culture supernatants and identified as flagellin by tandem mass spectrometry. Expression of L. monocytogenes flagellin in non-flagellated Escherichia coli conferred on the bacterium the ability to activate TLR5, whereas deletion of the flagellin genes from Salmonella typhimurium abrogated TLR5-stimulating activity. All known TLRs signal through the adaptor protein MyD88. Mice challenged with bacterial flagellin rapidly produced systemic interleukin-6, whereas MyD88-null mice did not respond to flagellin. Our data suggest that TLR5, a member of the evolutionarily conserved Toll-like receptor family, has evolved to permit mammals specifically to detect flagellated bacterial pathogens.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Polymer Composites
                Polymer Composites
                Wiley
                0272-8397
                1548-0569
                March 2023
                December 09 2022
                March 2023
                : 44
                : 3
                : 1711-1724
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Electroquímica CIDETEQ SC. Pedro Escobed QUERÉTARO México
                [2 ] Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C Chihuahua Mexico
                [3 ] Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN Querétaro Mexico
                [4 ] Departamento de Biología, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas Universidad de Guanajuato Guanajuato Mexico
                Article
                10.1002/pc.27199
                58881949-c242-4001-87ae-a1fa9814d4ba
                © 2023

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