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      Gaming disorder: Its delineation as an important condition for diagnosis, management, and prevention

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      1 , * , , 2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 18 , 18 , 19 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 26
      Journal of Behavioral Addictions
      Akadémiai Kiadó
      gaming disorder, gaming addiction, diagnosis, intervention

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          Abstract

          Online gaming has greatly increased in popularity in recent years, and with this has come a multiplicity of problems due to excessive involvement in gaming. Gaming disorder, both online and offline, has been defined for the first time in the draft of 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). National surveys have shown prevalence rates of gaming disorder/addiction of 10%–15% among young people in several Asian countries and of 1%–10% in their counterparts in some Western countries. Several diseases related to excessive gaming are now recognized, and clinics are being established to respond to individual, family, and community concerns, but many cases remain hidden. Gaming disorder shares many features with addictions due to psychoactive substances and with gambling disorder, and functional neuroimaging shows that similar areas of the brain are activated. Governments and health agencies worldwide are seeking for the effects of online gaming to be addressed, and for preventive approaches to be developed. Central to this effort is a need to delineate the nature of the problem, which is the purpose of the definitions in the draft of ICD-11.

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          Integrating psychological and neurobiological considerations regarding the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders: An Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model.

          Within the last two decades, many studies have addressed the clinical phenomenon of Internet-use disorders, with a particular focus on Internet-gaming disorder. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, we suggest an Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model of specific Internet-use disorders. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework for the processes underlying the development and maintenance of an addictive use of certain Internet applications or sites promoting gaming, gambling, pornography viewing, shopping, or communication. The model is composed as a process model. Specific Internet-use disorders are considered to be the consequence of interactions between predisposing factors, such as neurobiological and psychological constitutions, moderators, such as coping styles and Internet-related cognitive biases, and mediators, such as affective and cognitive responses to situational triggers in combination with reduced executive functioning. Conditioning processes may strengthen these associations within an addiction process. Although the hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders, summarized in the I-PACE model, must be further tested empirically, implications for treatment interventions are suggested.
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            An international consensus for assessing internet gaming disorder using the new DSM-5 approach.

            For the first time, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduces non-substance addictions as psychiatric diagnoses. The aims of this paper are to (i) present the main controversies surrounding the decision to include internet gaming disorder, but not internet addiction more globally, as a non-substance addiction in the research appendix of the DSM-5, and (ii) discuss the meaning behind the DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder. The paper also proposes a common method for assessing internet gaming disorder. Although the need for common diagnostic criteria is not debated, the existence of multiple instruments reflect the divergence of opinions in the field regarding how best to diagnose this condition. We convened international experts from European, North and South American, Asian and Australasian countries to discuss and achieve consensus about assessing internet gaming disorder as defined within DSM-5. We describe the intended meaning behind each of the nine DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder and present a single item that best reflects each criterion, translated into the 10 main languages of countries in which research on this condition has been conducted. Using results from this cross-cultural collaboration, we outline important research directions for understanding and assessing internet gaming disorder. As this field moves forward, it is critical that researchers and clinicians around the world begin to apply a common methodology; this report is the first to achieve an international consensus related to the assessment of internet gaming disorder. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
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              Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8 to 18: a national study.

              Researchers have studied whether some youth are "addicted" to video games, but previous studies have been based on regional convenience samples. Using a national sample, this study gathered information about video-gaming habits and parental involvement in gaming, to determine the percentage of youth who meet clinical-style criteria for pathological gaming. A Harris poll surveyed a randomly selected sample of 1,178 American youth ages 8 to 18. About 8% of video-game players in this sample exhibited pathological patterns of play. Several indicators documented convergent and divergent validity of the results: Pathological gamers spent twice as much time playing as nonpathological gamers and received poorer grades in school; pathological gaming also showed comorbidity with attention problems. Pathological status significantly predicted poorer school performance even after controlling for sex, age, and weekly amount of video-game play. These results confirm that pathological gaming can be measured reliably, that the construct demonstrates validity, and that it is not simply isomorphic with a high amount of play.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                26 July 2017
                September 2017
                : 6
                : 3
                : 271-279
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Centre for Youth Substance Abuse Research, The University of Queensland , Brisbane, QLD, Australia
                [ 2 ]Mental Health Institute of the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University , Changsha, Hunan, China
                [ 3 ]School of Psychology, The University of Adelaide , Adelaide, SA, Australia
                [ 4 ]Central Institute of Mental Health, University of Heidelberg , Mannheim, Germany
                [ 5 ]Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Lübeck , Lübeck, Germany
                [ 6 ]Central North West London NHS Trust and Division of Brain Science, Imperial College London , London, UK
                [ 7 ]Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran
                [ 8 ]Department of Health, Hong Kong SAR, China
                [ 9 ]Integrated Centre on Addiction Prevention and Treatment, Tung Wah Group of Hospitals , Hong Kong SAR, China
                [ 10 ]Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital Selayang , Selangor, Malaysia
                [ 11 ]Mental Health and Psychiatry Department, University Hospitals of Geneva , Geneva, Switzerland
                [ 12 ]Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea , Seoul, South Korea
                [ 13 ]Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Child Study Center, and The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, Yale University School of Medicine, and Connecticut Mental Health Center , New Haven, CT, USA
                [ 14 ]Department of Psychiatry, University of Connecticut School of Medicine , Farmington, CT, USA
                [ 15 ] Study Group on Technological Addictions , Porto Alegre, Brazil
                [ 16 ]Department of Psychiatry, National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences , New Delhi, India
                [ 17 ]Applied Child Psychology and Department of Psychiatry, McGill University , Montreal, QC, Canada
                [ 18 ]International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University , Nottingham, UK
                [ 19 ] National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center , Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
                [ 20 ]Epidemiology Unit and Centre for Alcohol Studies, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University , Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand
                [ 21 ] National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences , Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
                [ 22 ] National Rehabilitation Center , Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
                [ 23 ]Department of Paediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong, China
                [ 24 ]National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales , Randwick, NSW, Australia
                [ 25 ]National Observatory on Alcohol, National Institute of Health , Rome, Italy
                [ 26 ]Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, WHO Headquarters , Geneva, Switzerland
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: John B. Saunders; Centre for Youth Substance Abuse Research, The University of Queensland, 1 Macquarie Street, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia; Phone: +61 2 9252 0959; E-mail: mail@ 123456jbsaunders.net
                Article
                10.1556/2006.6.2017.039
                5700714
                28816494
                5888f85e-ce54-41fb-a045-27deda41aa49
                © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 24 February 2017
                : 05 April 2017
                : 10 April 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 71, Pages: 9
                Funding
                Funding sources: No financial support was received for the preparation of this review paper.
                Categories
                COMMENTARY

                Evolutionary Biology,Medicine,Psychology,Educational research & Statistics,Social & Behavioral Sciences
                intervention,diagnosis,gaming addiction,gaming disorder

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