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      Inactivation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 by WHO-Recommended Hand Rub Formulations and Alcohols


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          Infection control instructions call for use of alcohol-based hand rub solutions to inactivate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We determined the virucidal activity of World Health Organization–recommended hand rub formulations, at full strength and multiple dilutions, and of the active ingredients. All disinfectants demonstrated efficient virus inactivation.

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          Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia.

          A previously unknown coronavirus was isolated from the sputum of a 60-year-old man who presented with acute pneumonia and subsequent renal failure with a fatal outcome in Saudi Arabia. The virus (called HCoV-EMC) replicated readily in cell culture, producing cytopathic effects of rounding, detachment, and syncytium formation. The virus represents a novel betacoronavirus species. The closest known relatives are bat coronaviruses HKU4 and HKU5. Here, the clinical data, virus isolation, and molecular identification are presented. The clinical picture was remarkably similar to that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003 and reminds us that animal coronaviruses can cause severe disease in humans.
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            Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges

            Highlights • Emergence of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China has caused a large global outbreak and major public health issue. • At 9 February 2020, data from the WHO has shown >37 000 confirmed cases in 28 countries (>99% of cases detected in China). • 2019-nCoV is spread by human-to-human transmission via droplets or direct contact. • Infection estimated to have an incubation period of 2–14 days and a basic reproduction number of 2.24–3.58. • Controlling infection to prevent spread of the 2019-nCoV is the primary intervention being used.
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              Identification of a Novel Coronavirus in Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

              The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has recently been identified as a new clinical entity. SARS is thought to be caused by an unknown infectious agent. Clinical specimens from patients with SARS were searched for unknown viruses with the use of cell cultures and molecular techniques. A novel coronavirus was identified in patients with SARS. The virus was isolated in cell culture, and a sequence 300 nucleotides in length was obtained by a polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR)-based random-amplification procedure. Genetic characterization indicated that the virus is only distantly related to known coronaviruses (identical in 50 to 60 percent of the nucleotide sequence). On the basis of the obtained sequence, conventional and real-time PCR assays for specific and sensitive detection of the novel virus were established. Virus was detected in a variety of clinical specimens from patients with SARS but not in controls. High concentrations of viral RNA of up to 100 million molecules per milliliter were found in sputum. Viral RNA was also detected at extremely low concentrations in plasma during the acute phase and in feces during the late convalescent phase. Infected patients showed seroconversion on the Vero cells in which the virus was isolated. The novel coronavirus might have a role in causing SARS. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society

                Author and article information

                Emerg Infect Dis
                Emerging Infect. Dis
                Emerging Infectious Diseases
                Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
                July 2020
                : 26
                : 7
                : 1592-1595
                [1]Institute of Virology and Immunology, Bern and Mittelhäusern, Switzerland (A. Kratzel, P. V’kovski, S. Steiner, M. Gultom, T.T.N. Thao, N. Ebert, M. Holwerda, R. Dijkman, V. Thiel);
                [2]University of Bern, Bern (A. Kratzel, P. V’kovski, S. Steiner, M. Gultom, T.T.N. Thao, N. Ebert, M. Holwerda, R. Dijkman, V. Thiel);
                [3]Ruhr University Bochum, Germany (D. Todt, E. Steinmann, S. Pfaender);
                [4]Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital of Essen, Essen, Germany (J. Steinmann);
                [5]Institute of Clinical Hygiene, Medical Microbiology and Infectiology General Hospital Nürnberg, Paracelsus Medical University, Nürnberg, Germany (J. Steinmann);
                [6]Institute of Virology, Charité Berlin, Berlin, Germany (D. Niemeyer, C. Drosten);
                [7]Institute for Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany (G. Kampf)
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Stephanie Pfaender, Department for Molecular and Medical Virology, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany; email: stephanie.pfaender@ 123456ruhr-uni-bochum.de
                Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by WHO-Recommended Hand Rub Formulations and Alcohols

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                ethanol,2-propanol,hand sanitizer,world health organization,coronavirus disease,respiratory infections,severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2,sars-cov-2,sars,covid-19,2019 novel coronavirus disease,zoonoses,viruses,coronavirus


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