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      ¿Qué es la hiperactividad y cómo ven el problema los padres? Análisis de los motivos de consulta y las estrategias de afrontamiento del TDAH en una muestra de estratos socioeconómicos altos de Bogotá Translated title: What is Hyperactivity and How do Parents View The Problem? Analysis of Chief Complaints and Coping Strategies of Adhd in a Sample of High Socioeconomic Status in Bogotá

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          Abstract

          Introducción: El trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH) es el diagnóstico más frecuente en la consulta psiquiátrica infantil en distintas sociedades. Clásicamente, la triada de hiperactividad, déficit de atención e impulsividad es el núcleo y el objetivo de las diferentes estrategias terapéuticas. Sin embargo, son múltiples los motivos de consulta que los pacientes y sus familias establecen, debido al impacto de los síntomas en las dinámicas escolares y de convivencia. Objetivo: Conocer cómo se expresan los motivos de consulta en un medio como el de Bogotá (Colombia). Métodos: Se analizaron 366 encuestas de padres de niños con TDAH, quienes asisten a la reunión mensual de la escuela para padres HIDEA, especializada en TDAH, en la que relatan sus motivos de consulta y las estrategias con las cuales tratan de mejorar estas dificultades. Resultados: Las quejas más frecuentes son la rebeldía, el desacato a la autoridad y el bajo rendimiento escolar. Para ayudar al niño, recurren ante todo a la terapia ocupacional, de acuerdo con la recomendación del colegio. Conclusiones: Para los padres la problemática sentida no se relaciona directamente con los rasgos clínicos principales del TDAH, sino con sus consecuencias desadaptativas en el medio escolar. Paradójicamente, también se hace evidente una relativa debilidad de las estrategias de afrontamiento que implican cambios profundos en los patrones de crianza y convivencia.

          Translated abstract

          Introduction: The most frequent clinical diagnosis in psychiatric child services in different societies is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Classically, the core symptoms and the main objective of different therapeutic strategies are the triad hyperactivity, attention deficit, and impulsivity. However, the chief complaints that patients and families state are diverse due to the relevant impact of the symptoms on school and social dynamics. Objective: To learn how the chief complaints are expressed in the context of Bogotá (Colombia). Methods: 366 surveys of parents of children with ADHD were analyzed. They participated in the monthly meeting of the “HIDEA Parent´s School”, which specializes in ADHD. Surveys summarized the complaints and confrontation strategies used to improve these inconveniences. Results: The most frequent complaints were disobedience, defying authority, and low school performance. To help the children the parents turned mainly to occupational therapy as suggested by the school. Conclusions: We observed that parents perceived the problem as linked to social annoyance consequences instead of clinical symptoms of ADHD. Paradoxically a relative weakness of confrontation approaches was also evident, involving deep changes in child rearing patterns and social interactions.

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          Most cited references 14

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          A meta-analytic review of gender differences in ADHD.

           J Gershon (2001)
          The present study examined gender differences in ADHD through a meta-analysis. Effect size estimates for the primary symptoms and correlates of ADHD were calculated in an attempt to replicate and extend a previous meta-analysis on gender differences in the disorder. Relatively lenient inclusion criteria were used in order to maximize the number of studies included in the effect sizes. The results indicated that in comparison to ADHD boys, ADHD girls had lower ratings on hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity, and externalizing problems. In addition, ADHD girls had greater intellectual impairments and more internalizing problems than ADHD boys. Overall, the results of the current meta-analysis indicated general agreement with the previous meta-analysis. The clinical implications of these gender differences and future research considerations are discussed.
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            Teacher Efficacy and Student Problem as Factors in Special Education Referral

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              DSM IV. Manual diagnóstico y estadístico de los trastornos mentales

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rcp
                Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
                rev.colomb.psiquiatr.
                Asociacion Colombiana de Psiquiatria. (Bogotá )
                0034-7450
                September 2011
                : 40
                : 3
                : 488-503
                S0034-74502011000300009

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Colombia
                Categories
                PSYCHIATRY

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