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      Factors Determining the Functional State of Cardiac Surgery Patients with Complicated Postoperative Period

      , , ,
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          The purpose of this work was to study the factors determining the functional state of cardiac surgery patients with a complicated postoperative period upon discharge from the hospital. This observational study included 60 patients who underwent cardiac surgery with a complicated postoperative course and with a prolonged intensive care unit stay of more than 72 h. We assessed handgrip and lower-extremity muscle strength and the six-minute walk test (6MWT) distance 3 days after the surgery and at discharge from the hospital. Some patients (53%) additionally underwent a course of neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES). Two groups of patients were formed: first (6MWT distance at discharge of more than 300 m) and second groups (6MWT distance of 300 m or less). The patients of the second group had less lower-extremity muscle strength and handgrip strength on the third postoperative day, a longer aortic clamping time and a longer stay in the intensive care unit. Independent predictors of decreased exercise tolerance at discharge were body mass index, foot extensor strength and baseline 6MWT distance in the general group, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass in the NMES group and in the general group, and age in the NMES group. Thus, the muscle status on the third postoperative day was one of the independent factors associated with the 6MWT distance at discharge in the general group, but not in patients who received NMES. It is advisable to use these results in patients with complications after cardiac surgery with the use of NMES rehabilitation.

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          Most cited references28

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          Functional disability 5 years after acute respiratory distress syndrome.

          There have been few detailed, in-person interviews and examinations to obtain follow-up data on 5-year outcomes among survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We evaluated 109 survivors of ARDS at 3, 6, and 12 months and at 2, 3, 4, and 5 years after discharge from the intensive care unit. At each visit, patients were interviewed and examined; underwent pulmonary-function tests, the 6-minute walk test, resting and exercise oximetry, chest imaging, and a quality-of-life evaluation; and reported their use of health care services. At 5 years, the median 6-minute walk distance was 436 m (76% of predicted distance) and the Physical Component Score on the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey was 41 (mean norm score matched for age and sex, 50). With respect to this score, younger patients had a greater rate of recovery than older patients, but neither group returned to normal predicted levels of physical function at 5 years. Pulmonary function was normal to near-normal. A constellation of other physical and psychological problems developed or persisted in patients and family caregivers for up to 5 years. Patients with more coexisting illnesses incurred greater 5-year costs. Exercise limitation, physical and psychological sequelae, decreased physical quality of life, and increased costs and use of health care services are important legacies of severe lung injury.
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            Acute skeletal muscle wasting in critical illness.

            Survivors of critical illness demonstrate skeletal muscle wasting with associated functional impairment. To perform a comprehensive prospective characterization of skeletal muscle wasting, defining the pathogenic roles of altered protein synthesis and breakdown. Sixty-three critically ill patients (59% male; mean age: 54.7 years [95% CI, 50.0-59.6 years]) with an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 23.5 (95% CI, 21.9-25.2) were prospectively recruited within 24 hours following intensive care unit (ICU) admission from August 2009 to April 2011 at a university teaching and a community hospital in England. Patients were recruited if older than 18 years and were anticipated to be intubated for longer than 48 hours, to spend more than 7 days in critical care, and to survive ICU stay. Muscle loss was determined through serial ultrasound measurement of the rectus femoris cross-sectional area (CSA) on days 1, 3, 7, and 10. In a subset of patients, the fiber CSA area was quantified along with the ratio of protein to DNA on days 1 and 7. Histopathological analysis was performed. In addition, muscle protein synthesis, breakdown rates, and respective signaling pathways were characterized. There were significant reductions in the rectus femoris CSA observed at day 10 (−17.7% [95% CI, −25.9% to 8.1%]; P < .001). In the 28 patients assessed by all 3 measurement methods on days 1 and 7, the rectus femoris CSA decreased by 10.3% (95% CI, 6.1% to 14.5%), the fiber CSA by 17.5% (95% CI, 5.8% to 29.3%), and the ratio of protein to DNA by 29.5% (95% CI, 13.4% to 45.6%). Decrease in the rectus femoris CSA was greater in patients who experienced multiorgan failure by day 7 (−15.7%; 95% CI, −27.7% to 11.4%) compared with single organ failure (−3.0%; 95% CI, −5.3% to 2.1%) (P < .001), even by day 3 (−8.7% [95% CI, −59.3% to 50.6%] vs −1.8% [95% CI, −12.3% to 10.5%], respectively; P = .03). Myofiber necrosis occurred in 20 of 37 patients (54.1%). Protein synthesis measured by the muscle protein fractional synthetic rate was depressed in patients on day 1 (0.035%/hour; 95% CI, 0.023% to 0.047%/hour) compared with rates observed in fasted healthy controls (0.039%/hour; 95% CI, 0.029% to 0.048%/hour) (P = .57) and increased by day 7 (0.076% [95% CI, 0.032%-0.120%/hour]; P = .03) to rates associated with fed controls (0.065%/hour [95% CI, 0.049% to 0.080%/hour]; P = .30), independent of nutritional load. Leg protein breakdown remained elevated throughout the study (8.5 [95% CI, 4.7 to 12.3] to 10.6 [95% CI, 6.8 to 14.4] μmol of phenylalanine/min/ideal body weight × 100; P = .40). The pattern of intracellular signaling supported increased breakdown (n = 9, r = −0.83, P = .005) and decreased synthesis (n = 9, r = −0.69, P = .04). Among these critically ill patients, muscle wasting occurred early and rapidly during the first week of critical illness and was more severe among those with multiorgan failure compared with single organ failure. These findings may provide insights into skeletal muscle wasting in critical illness.
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              Effect of 10 days of bed rest on skeletal muscle in healthy older adults.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                IJERGQ
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                IJERPH
                MDPI AG
                1660-4601
                April 2022
                April 04 2022
                : 19
                : 7
                : 4329
                Article
                10.3390/ijerph19074329
                8998976
                35410009
                589b05f1-036d-457a-8264-d466116a0c75
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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