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      Home environment relationships with children’s physical activity, sedentary time, and screen time by socioeconomic status

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          Abstract

          Background

          Children in households of lower socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to be overweight/obese. We aimed to determine if home physical activity (PA) environments differed by SES and to explore home environment mediators of the relation of family SES to children’s PA and sedentary behavior.

          Methods

          Participants were 715 children aged 6 to 11 from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids (NIK) Study. Household SES was examined using highest educational attainment and income. Home environment was measured by parent report on a survey. Outcomes were child’s accelerometer-measured PA and parent-reported screen time. Mediation analyses were conducted for home environment factors that varied by SES.

          Results

          Children from lower income households had greater media access in their bedrooms (TV 52% vs. 14%, DVD player 39% vs. 14%, video games 21% vs. 9%) but lower access to portable play equipment (bikes 85% vs. 98%, jump ropes 69% vs. 83%) compared to higher income children. Lower SES families had more restrictive rules about PA (2.5 vs. 2.0). Across SES, children watched TV/DVDs with parents/siblings more often than they engaged in PA with them. Parents of lower SES watched TV/DVDs with their children more often (3.1 vs. 2.5 days/week). Neither total daily and home-based MVPA nor sedentary time differed by SES. Children’s daily screen time varied from 1.7 hours/day in high SES to 2.4 in low SES families. Media in the bedroom was related to screen time, and screen time with parents was a mediator of the SES--screen time relationship.

          Conclusions

          Lower SES home environments provided more opportunities for sedentary behavior and fewer for PA. Removing electronic media from children’s bedrooms has the potential to reduce disparities in chronic disease risk.

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          Most cited references22

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          A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents.

          Understanding the factors that influence physical activity can aid the design of more effective interventions. Previous reviews of correlates of youth physical activity have produced conflicting results. A comprehensive review of correlates of physical activity was conducted, and semiquantitative results were summarized separately for children (ages 3-12) and adolescents (ages 13-18). The 108 studies evaluated 40 variables for children and 48 variables for adolescents. About 60% of all reported associations with physical activity were statistically significant. Variables that were consistently associated with children's physical activity were sex (male), parental overweight status, physical activity preferences, intention to be active, perceived barriers (inverse), previous physical activity, healthy diet, program/facility access, and time spent outdoors. Variables that were consistently associated with adolescents' physical activity were sex (male), ethnicity (white), age (inverse), perceived activity competence, intentions, depression (inverse), previous physical activity, community sports, sensation seeking, sedentary after school and on weekends (inverse), parent support, support from others, sibling physical activity, direct help from parents, and opportunities to exercise. These consistently related variables should be confirmed in prospective studies, and interventions to improve the modifiable variables should be developed and evaluated.
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            Systematic review of correlates of screen-viewing among young children.

            The aims of this review were to: (I) synthesise current research on the correlates of screen-viewing among young children (< or = 7 years old); and (II) identify gaps in the study of these correlates. 71 English-language studies published between 1980 and February 2009 were extracted from computerized literature searches and bibliographies of primary studies. Variables positively associated with screen-viewing were age, ethnicity, family TV viewing, family factors (maternal depressive symptoms and parental body mass) and media access. Variables negatively associated were socioeconomic indicators, parental rules and safety. Mother's age, mother's employment and presence of a TV set in a child's bedroom were found to be unclearly associated with screen-viewing behaviour. Gender, marital status, father's age and number of TVs were not associated with screen-viewing behaviour. Few modifiable variables for future research implications were identified. Findings suggest that research on correlates of screen-viewing among young children is limited. However, there are some clear correlates on which future interventions could be tailored (age, ethnicity, some socioeconomic indicators, family TV viewing, some family factors, parental rules and safety). Subsequent research is needed both to further test some of the correlates and to review the correlates for strength of associations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              The public health impact of socioeconomic status on adolescent depression and obesity.

              We examined the public health impact of the socioeconomic status (SES) gradient on adolescents' physical and mental health. Population attributable risk (PAR) for household income and parental education were calculated relative to depression and obesity among a nationally representative sample of 15,112 adolescents. PARs for income and education were large. Across each gender and race/ethnicity group, the PAR for education tended to exceed that for income. For depression, the adjusted PAR for income was 26%, and the PAR for education was 40%; for obesity, the adjusted PAR for income was 32%, and the PAR for education was 39%. SES is associated with a large proportion of the disease burden within the total population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
                Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
                The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
                BioMed Central
                1479-5868
                2012
                26 July 2012
                : 9
                : 88
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Seattle Children’s Research Institute, M/S CW8-6, P.O. Box 5371, Seattle, WA, 98145-5005, USA
                [2 ]University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
                [3 ]SDSU, San Diego, CA, USA
                [4 ]University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
                [5 ]University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
                Article
                1479-5868-9-88
                10.1186/1479-5868-9-88
                3413573
                22835155
                589c9056-ec3e-4c70-b97e-1f7fb60b5dbb
                Copyright ©2012 Tandon et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 20 January 2012
                : 26 July 2012
                Categories
                Research

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                childhood obesity,social epidemiology,family,children,ecological models
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                childhood obesity, social epidemiology, family, children, ecological models

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