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ADAR2 mislocalization and widespread RNA editing aberrations in C9orf72-mediated ALS/FTD

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      Expanded GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat in noncoding region of C9ORF72 causes chromosome 9p-linked FTD and ALS.

      Several families have been reported with autosomal-dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), genetically linked to chromosome 9p21. Here, we report an expansion of a noncoding GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat in the gene C9ORF72 that is strongly associated with disease in a large FTD/ALS kindred, previously reported to be conclusively linked to chromosome 9p. This same repeat expansion was identified in the majority of our families with a combined FTD/ALS phenotype and TDP-43-based pathology. Analysis of extended clinical series found the C9ORF72 repeat expansion to be the most common genetic abnormality in both familial FTD (11.7%) and familial ALS (23.5%). The repeat expansion leads to the loss of one alternatively spliced C9ORF72 transcript and to formation of nuclear RNA foci, suggesting multiple disease mechanisms. Our findings indicate that repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is a major cause of both FTD and ALS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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        A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is the cause of chromosome 9p21-linked ALS-FTD.

        The chromosome 9p21 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD) locus contains one of the last major unidentified autosomal-dominant genes underlying these common neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously shown that a founder haplotype, covering the MOBKL2b, IFNK, and C9ORF72 genes, is present in the majority of cases linked to this region. Here we show that there is a large hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat expansion in the first intron of C9ORF72 on the affected haplotype. This repeat expansion segregates perfectly with disease in the Finnish population, underlying 46.0% of familial ALS and 21.1% of sporadic ALS in that population. Taken together with the D90A SOD1 mutation, 87% of familial ALS in Finland is now explained by a simple monogenic cause. The repeat expansion is also present in one-third of familial ALS cases of outbred European descent, making it the most common genetic cause of these fatal neurodegenerative diseases identified to date. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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          The mechanism of eukaryotic translation initiation and principles of its regulation.

          Protein synthesis is principally regulated at the initiation stage (rather than during elongation or termination), allowing rapid, reversible and spatial control of gene expression. Progress over recent years in determining the structures and activities of initiation factors, and in mapping their interactions in ribosomal initiation complexes, have advanced our understanding of the complex translation initiation process. These developments have provided a solid foundation for studying the regulation of translation initiation by mechanisms that include the modulation of initiation factor activity (which affects almost all scanning-dependent initiation) and through sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs (which affect individual mRNAs).
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Acta Neuropathologica
            Acta Neuropathol
            Springer Nature
            0001-6322
            1432-0533
            April 3 2019
            10.1007/s00401-019-01999-w
            © 2019

            http://www.springer.com/tdm

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