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      A Review of Bioinsecticidal Activity of Solanaceae Alkaloids

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          Abstract

          Only a small percentage of insect species are pests. However, pest species cause significant losses in agricultural and forest crops, and many are vectors of diseases. Currently, many scientists are focused on developing new tools to control insect populations, including secondary plant metabolites, e.g., alkaloids, glycoalkaloids, terpenoids, organic acids and alcohols, which show promise for use in plant protection. These compounds can affect insects at all levels of biological organization, but their action generally disturbs cellular and physiological processes, e.g., by altering redox balance, hormonal regulation, neuronal signalization or reproduction in exposed individuals. Secondary plant metabolites cause toxic effects that can be observed at both lethal and sublethal levels, but the most important effect is repellence. Plants from the Solanaceae family, which contains numerous economically and ecologically important species, produce various substances that affect insects belonging to most orders, particularly herbivorous insects and other pests. Many compounds possess insecticidal properties, but they are also classified as molluscides, acaricides, nematocides, fungicides and bactericides. In this paper, we present data on the sublethal and lethal toxicity caused by pure metabolites and crude extracts obtained from Solanaceae plants. Pure substances as well as water and/or alcohol extracts cause lethal and sublethal effects in insects, which is important from the economical point of view. We discuss the results of our study and their relevance to plant protection and management.

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          Most cited references 166

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          Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

          Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions) could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment.
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            World malaria report 2013

            (2014)
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              Phenolics in ecological interactions: The importance of oxidation.

               H. Appel (1993)
              The ecological activities of plant phenolics are diverse and highly variable. Although some variation is attributable to differences in concentration, structure, and evolutionary history of association with target organisms, much of it is unexplained, making it difficult to predict when and where phenolics will be active. I suggest that our understanding is limited by a failure to appreciate the importance of oxidative activation and the conditions that influence it. I summarize examples of oxidative activation of phenolics in ecological interactions, and argue that physicochemical conditions of the environment that control phenolic oxidation generate variation in ecological activity. Finally, I suggest that measurements of oxidative conditions can improve our predictions of phenolic activity and that experiments must be designed with conditions appropriate to the biochemical mode of phenolic action.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Toxins (Basel)
                Toxins (Basel)
                toxins
                Toxins
                MDPI
                2072-6651
                01 March 2016
                March 2016
                : 8
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Animal Physiology and Development, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89 Str., Poznań, 61-614, Poland; pmarcin@ 123456amu.edu.pl (P.M.); rosin@ 123456amu.edu.pl (G.R.)
                [2 ]Electron and Confocal Microscope Laboratory, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89 Str., Poznań, 61-614, Poland
                [3 ]Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Arts and Science, Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, 67100, Turkey; endericen@ 123456hotmail.com
                [4 ]Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Science, Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, 67100, Turkey; buyukguzelk@ 123456hotmail.com
                [5 ]Department of Science, University of Basilicata, Via dellAteneo Lucano 10, Potenza, 85100, Italy; patrizia.falabella@ 123456unibas.it (P.F.); emanuelaventrella@ 123456libero.it (E.V.); filomenalelario@ 123456hotmail.com (F.L.); sabino.bufo@ 123456unibas.it (S.A.B.)
                [6 ]Department of European Culture, University of Basilicata, Via S. Rocco 1, Matera, 75100, Italy; laura.scrano@ 123456unibas.it
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: szyymon@ 123456amu.edu.pl (S.C.); ed@ 123456amu.edu.pl (Z.A.); Tel.: +48-8295-925 (S.C.); +48-8295-646 (Z.A.)
                Article
                toxins-08-00060
                10.3390/toxins8030060
                4810205
                26938561
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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