Szymon Chowański 1 , * , Zbigniew Adamski 1 , 2 , * , Paweł Marciniak 1 , Grzegorz Rosiński 1 , Ender Büyükgüzel 3 , Kemal Büyükgüzel 4 , Patrizia Falabella 5 , Laura Scrano 6 , Emanuela Ventrella 5 , Filomena Lelario 5 , Sabino A. Bufo 5
01 March 2016
Only a small percentage of insect species are pests. However, pest species cause significant losses in agricultural and forest crops, and many are vectors of diseases. Currently, many scientists are focused on developing new tools to control insect populations, including secondary plant metabolites, e.g., alkaloids, glycoalkaloids, terpenoids, organic acids and alcohols, which show promise for use in plant protection. These compounds can affect insects at all levels of biological organization, but their action generally disturbs cellular and physiological processes, e.g., by altering redox balance, hormonal regulation, neuronal signalization or reproduction in exposed individuals. Secondary plant metabolites cause toxic effects that can be observed at both lethal and sublethal levels, but the most important effect is repellence. Plants from the Solanaceae family, which contains numerous economically and ecologically important species, produce various substances that affect insects belonging to most orders, particularly herbivorous insects and other pests. Many compounds possess insecticidal properties, but they are also classified as molluscides, acaricides, nematocides, fungicides and bactericides. In this paper, we present data on the sublethal and lethal toxicity caused by pure metabolites and crude extracts obtained from Solanaceae plants. Pure substances as well as water and/or alcohol extracts cause lethal and sublethal effects in insects, which is important from the economical point of view. We discuss the results of our study and their relevance to plant protection and management.