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      Contrasting patterns of insecticide resistance and knockdown resistance ( kdr) in the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Malaysia

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          Abstract

          Background

          Knowledge on the extent, distribution and mechanisms of insecticide resistance is essential for successful insecticide-based dengue control interventions. Here, we report an extensive resistance profiling of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus across Malaysia and establish the contribution of knockdown resistance mechanism revealing significant contrast between both species.

          Methods

          Aedes mosquitoes were collected from four states in Malaysia in 2010 using ovitraps and tested against six major insecticides using WHO bioassays. Knockdown resistance ( kdr) was investigated in both species.

          Results

          A moderate resistance to temephos was detected from samples collected in 2010 in Penang, Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bharu and Kota Bharu (1.5 < RR < 3.3). A widespread and multiple resistances was observed in Ae. aegypti particularly against pyrethroids, DDT and bendiocarb. Mosquitoes from Kuala Lumpur consistently had the highest resistance levels and was the only population showing a moderate resistance to malathion (91% mortality). The resistance profile of Ae. albopictus contrasted to Ae. aegypti with full susceptibility to pyrethroids except in Kuala Lumpur where moderate resistance is observed. PBO synergist assays suggest metabolic resistance mechanisms play a major role in resistance in both species. Two kdr mutations, F1534C and V1016G, were detected in Ae. aegypti across Malaysia but neither of these mutations were found in Ae. albopictus. Additionally, signatures of selection were detected on the Voltage-gated sodium channel gene in Ae. aegypti but not in Ae. albopictus. The presence of the 1534C allele was significantly associated with pyrethroid resistance and an additive effect to pyrethroid resistance was observed in individuals containing both kdr alleles.

          Conclusions

          Findings from this study will help to design and implement successful insecticide-based interventions against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to improve dengue control across Malaysia.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13071-015-0797-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Pyrethroid and DDT cross-resistance in Aedes aegypti is correlated with novel mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene.

          Samples of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected from 13 localities between 1995 and 1998. Two laboratory strains, Bora (French Polynesia) and AEAE, were both susceptible to DDT and permethrin; all other strains, except Larentuka (Indonesia) and Bouaké (Ivory Coast), contained individual fourth-instar larvae resistant to permethrin. Ten strains were subjected to a range of biochemical assays. Many strains had elevated carboxylesterase activity compared to the Bora strain; this was particularly high in the Indonesian strains Salatiga and Semarang, and in the Guyane strain (Cayenne). Monooxygenase levels were increased in the Salatiga and Paea (Polynesia) strains, and reduced in the two Thai strains (Mae Kaza, Mae Kud) and the Larentuka strain. Glutathione S-transferase activity was elevated in the Guyane strain. All other enzyme profiles were similar to the susceptible strain. The presence of both DDT and pyrethroid resistance in the Semarang, Belem (Brazil) and Long Hoa (Vietnam) strains suggested the presence of a knock-down resistant (kdr)-type resistance mechanism. Part of the S6 hydrophobic segment of domain II of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene was obtained by RT-PCR and sequenced from several insects from all 13 field strains. Four novel mutations were identified. Three strains contained identical amino acid substitutions at two positions, two strains shared a different substitution, and one strain was homozygous for a fourth alteration. The leucine to phenylalanine substitution that confers nerve insensitivity to pyrethroids in a range of other resistant insects was absent. Direct neurophysiological assays on individual larvae from three strains with these mutations demonstrated reduced nerve sensitivity to permethrin or lambda cyhalothrin inhibition compared to the susceptible strains.
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            Organization and mapping of a sequence on the Drosophila melanogaster X and Y chromosomes that is transcribed during spermatogenesis.

             K Livak (1984)
            The D. melanogaster DNA segment in the recombinant phage lambda Dm2L1 contains at least eight copies of a tandemly repeated 1250-base pair (bp) sequence (henceforth called the 2L1 sequence). Testes from XO D. melanogaster males contain an abundant 800-base RNA species that is homologous to a 520-bp region of the 2L1 sequence. Blotting experiments show that the 2L1 sequence is repeated in the D. melanogaster genome and is present on both the X and Y chromosomes. With the use of X-Y translocations, the 2L1 sequence has been mapped to a region between kl-1 and kl-2 on the long arm of the Y chromosome. In Oregon-R wild type there are an estimated 200 copies of the 2L1 sequence on the X chromosome and probably at least 80 copies of the Y chromosome. In some other strains the repetition frequency on the Y chromosome is about the same, but the copy number on the X chromosome is much reduced. On the basis of the five strains investigated, there is a correlation between copy number of the 2L1 sequence on the X chromosome and the presence of a particular allele of the Stellate locus (Ste; 1-45.7). It seems that low copy number corresponds to Ste+ and high copy number corresponds to Ste. The Ste locus determines whether single or star-shaped crystals are observed in the spermatocytes of XO males. Studies using D. simulans and D. mauritiana DNA show that the 2L1 sequence is homologous to restriction fragments in male DNA but not female DNA, indicating that this sequence is present only on the Y chromosome in these two species. In DNA derived from D. erecta, D. teissieri and D. yakuba, there is very little, if any, hybridization with the 2L1 sequence probe.
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              Genomic analysis of detoxification genes in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

              Annotation of the recently determined genome sequence of the major dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, reveals an abundance of detoxification genes. Here, we report the presence of 235 members of the cytochrome P450, glutathione transferase and carboxy/cholinesterase families in Ae. aegypti. This gene count represents an increase of 58% and 36% compared with the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, respectively. The expansion is not uniform within the gene families. Secure orthologs can be found across the insect species for enzymes that have presumed or proven biosynthetic or housekeeping roles. In contrast, subsets of these gene families that are associated with general xenobiotic detoxification, in particular the CYP6, CYP9 and alpha esterase families, have expanded in Ae. aegypti. In order to identify detoxification genes associated with resistance to insecticides we constructed an array containing unique oligonucleotide probes for these genes and compared their expression level in insecticide resistant and susceptible strains. Several candidate genes were identified with the majority belonging to two gene families, the CYP9 P450s and the Epsilon GSTs. This 'Ae. aegypti Detox Chip' will facilitate the implementation of insecticide resistance management strategies for arboviral control programmes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                intan85@liverpool.ac.uk
                zairi@usm.my
                hranson@liverpool.ac.uk
                charles.wondji@lstmed.ac.uk
                Journal
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central (London )
                1756-3305
                25 March 2015
                25 March 2015
                2015
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA United Kingdom
                [ ]School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
                Article
                797
                10.1186/s13071-015-0797-2
                4377062
                25888775
                © Ishak et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Parasitology

                dengue, aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, insecticide resistance, knockdown resistance

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