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      MCM2-regulated functional networks in lung cancer by multi-dimensional proteomic approach

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          Abstract

          DNA replication control is vital for maintaining genome stability and the cell cycle, perhaps most notably during cell division. Malignancies often exhibit defective minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2), a cancer proliferation biomarker that serves as a licensing factor in the initiation of DNA replication. MCM2 is also known to be one of the ATPase active sites that facilitates conformational changes and drives DNA unwinding at the origin of DNA replication. However, the biological networks of MCM2 in lung cancer cells via protein phosphorylation remain unmapped. The RNA-seq datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed that MCM2 overexpression is correlated with poor survival rate in lung cancer patients. To uncover MCM2-regulated functional networks in lung cancer, we performed multi-dimensional proteomic approach by integrating analysis of the phosphoproteome and proteome, and identified a total of 2361 phosphorylation sites on 753 phosphoproteins, and 4672 proteins. We found that the deregulation of MCM2 is involved in lung cancer cell proliferation, the cell cycle, and migration. Furthermore, HMGA1 S99 phosphorylation was found to be differentially expressed under MCM2 perturbation in opposite directions, and plays an important role in regulating lung cancer cell proliferation. This study therefore enhances our capacity to therapeutically target cancer-specific phosphoproteins.

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          Most cited references 55

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          CORUM: the comprehensive resource of mammalian protein complexes—2009

          CORUM is a database that provides a manually curated repository of experimentally characterized protein complexes from mammalian organisms, mainly human (64%), mouse (16%) and rat (12%). Protein complexes are key molecular entities that integrate multiple gene products to perform cellular functions. The new CORUM 2.0 release encompasses 2837 protein complexes offering the largest and most comprehensive publicly available dataset of mammalian protein complexes. The CORUM dataset is built from 3198 different genes, representing ∼16% of the protein coding genes in humans. Each protein complex is described by a protein complex name, subunit composition, function as well as the literature reference that characterizes the respective protein complex. Recent developments include mapping of functional annotation to Gene Ontology terms as well as cross-references to Entrez Gene identifiers. In addition, a ‘Phylogenetic Conservation’ analysis tool was implemented that analyses the potential occurrence of orthologous protein complex subunits in mammals and other selected groups of organisms. This allows one to predict the occurrence of protein complexes in different phylogenetic groups. CORUM is freely accessible at (http://mips.helmholtz-muenchen.de/genre/proj/corum/index.html).
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            RNA and disease.

            Cellular functions depend on numerous protein-coding and noncoding RNAs and the RNA-binding proteins associated with them, which form ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs). Mutations that disrupt either the RNA or protein components of RNPs or the factors required for their assembly can be deleterious. Alternative splicing provides cells with an exquisite capacity to fine-tune their transcriptome and proteome in response to cues. Splicing depends on a complex code, numerous RNA-binding proteins, and an enormously intricate network of interactions among them, increasing the opportunity for exposure to mutations and misregulation that cause disease. The discovery of disease-causing mutations in RNAs is yielding a wealth of new therapeutic targets, and the growing understanding of RNA biology and chemistry is providing new RNA-based tools for developing therapeutics.
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              DNA replication in eukaryotic cells.

              The maintenance of the eukaryotic genome requires precisely coordinated replication of the entire genome each time a cell divides. To achieve this coordination, eukaryotic cells use an ordered series of steps to form several key protein assemblies at origins of replication. Recent studies have identified many of the protein components of these complexes and the time during the cell cycle they assemble at the origin. Interestingly, despite distinct differences in origin structure, the identity and order of assembly of eukaryotic replication factors is highly conserved across all species. This review describes our current understanding of these events and how they are coordinated with cell cycle progression. We focus on bringing together the results from different organisms to provide a coherent model of the events of initiation. We emphasize recent progress in determining the function of the different replication factors once they have been assembled at the origin.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                hsuancheng@ym.edu.tw
                yukijuan@ntu.edu.tw
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                16 October 2017
                16 October 2017
                2017
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0546 0241, GRID grid.19188.39, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Taiwan University, ; Taipei, 10617 Taiwan
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0546 0241, GRID grid.19188.39, Department of Life Science, National Taiwan University, ; Taipei, 10617 Taiwan
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0546 0241, GRID grid.19188.39, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, ; Taipei, 10617 Taiwan
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0425 5914, GRID grid.260770.4, Institute of Biomedical Informatics, Center for Systems and Synthetic Biology, National Yang-Ming University, ; Taipei, 11221 Taiwan
                Article
                13440
                10.1038/s41598-017-13440-x
                5643318
                29038488
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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