This paper reports on 3 patients on renal dialysis for crescentic glomerulonephritis associated with microscopic polyarteritis (MPA) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies specific for myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCAs). They successfully underwent renal transplantation from a cadaver donor 6-63 months after the onset of the disease, despite the persistence of antibodies at high titer. A triple immunosuppressive regimen including steroids, cyclosporin and azathioprine was used. One patient underwent transplantectomy for surgical complications 3 months later, while the serum creatinine was 2.0 mg/ dl (178 μmol/l): the remainder have a well-functioning graft after 21 and 38 months, no clinical sign of disease recurrence, and a MPO titer within the normal range. We conclude that MPA patients can undergo renal transplantation even if ANCAs persist at a high titer in the circulation.