West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes neuronal damage in the absence of treatment. In many flaviviruses, including WNV, the NS2B cofactor promotes the productive folding and the functional activity of the two-component NS3 (pro)teinase. Based on an analysis of the NS2B-NS3pro structure, we hypothesized that the G(22) residue and the negatively charged patch D(32)DD(34) of NS2B were part of an important configuration required for NS2B-NS3pro activity. Our experimental data confirmed that G(22) and D(32)DD(34) substitution for S and AAA, respectively, inactivated NS2B-NS3pro. An additional D42G mutant, which we designed as a control, had no dramatic effect on either the catalytic activity or self-proteolysis of NS2B-NS3pro. Because of the significant level of homology in flaviviral NS2B-NS3pro, our results will be useful for the development of specific allosteric inhibitors designed to interfere with the productive interactions of NS2B with NS3pro.