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      Hypothalamic Control of FSH and LH by FSH-RF, LHRH, Cytokines, Leptin and Nitric Oxide

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          Abstract

          Gonadotropin secretion by the pituitary gland is under the control of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and the putative follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing factor (FSHRF). Lamprey III LHRH is a potent FSHRF in the rat and appears to be resident in the FSH controlling area of the rat hypothalamus. It is an analog of mammalian LHRH and may be the long-sought FSHRF. Gonadal steroids feedback at hypothalamic and pituitary levels to either inhibit or stimulate the release of LH and FSH, which is also affected by inhibin and activin secreted by the gonads. Important control is exercised by acetylcholine, norepinephrine (NE), dopamine, serotonin, melatonin and glutamic acid (GA). Furthermore, LH and FSH also act at the hypothalamic level to alter secretion of gonadotropins. More recently, growth factors have been shown to have an important role. Many peptides act to inhibit or increase release of LH, and the sign of their action is often reversed by estrogen. A number of cytokines act at the hypothalamic level to suppress acutely the release of LH but not FSH. NE, GA and oxytocin stimulate LHRH release by activation of neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The pathway is as follows: oxytocin and/or GA activate NE neurons in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) that activate NOergic neurons by α<sub>1</sub> receptors. The NO released diffuses into LHRH terminals and induces LHRH release by activation of guanylate cyclase (GC) and cyclooxygenase. NO not only controls release of LHRH bound for the pituitary, but also that which induces mating by actions in the brain stem. An exciting recent development has been the discovery of the adipocyte hormone, leptin, a cytokine related to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In the male rat, leptin exhibits a high potency to stimulate FSH and LH release from hemipituitaries incubated in vitro, and increases the release of LHRH from MBH explants by stimulating the release of NO. LHRH and leptin release LH by activation of NOS in the gonadotropes. The NO released activates GC that releases cyclic GMP which induces LH release. Leptin induces LH release in conscious, ovariectomized estrogen-primed female rats, presumably by stimulating LHRH release. At the effective dose of estrogen to activate LH release, FSH release is inhibited. Leptin may play an important role in induction of puberty and control of LHRH release in the adult as well.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Early onset of reproductive function in normal female mice treated with leptin.

          Numerous studies have revealed an association between nutritional status, adiposity, and reproductive maturity. The role of leptin, a hormone secreted from adipose tissue, in the onset of reproductive function was investigated. Normal prepubertal female mice injected with leptin grew at a slower rate than controls as a result of the hormone's thinning effects, but they reproduced up to 9 days earlier than controls and showed earlier maturation of the reproductive tract. These results suggest that leptin acts as a signal triggering puberty, thus supporting the hypothesis that fat accumulation enhances maturation of the reproductive tract.
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            Role of leptin in hypothalamic-pituitary function

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              Targeting transforming growth factor alpha expression to discrete loci of the neuroendocrine brain induces female sexual precocity.

              Precocious puberty of cerebral origin is a poorly understood disorder of human sexual development, brought about by the premature activation of those neurons that produce luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), the neuropeptide controlling sexual maturation. An increased production of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) in the hypothalamus has been implicated in the mechanism underlying both normal and precocious puberty. We have now used two gene delivery systems to target TGF alpha overexpression near LHRH neurons in immature female rats. Fibroblasts infected with a retroviral construct in which expression of the human TGF alpha gene is constitutively driven by the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter, or transfected with a plasmid in which TGF alpha expression is controlled by an inducible metallothionein promoter, were transplanted into several regions of the hypothalamus. When the cells were in contact with LHRH nerve terminals or in the vicinity of LHRH perikarya, sexual maturation was accelerated. These results suggest that precocious puberty of cerebral origin may result from a focal disorder of TGF alpha production within the confines of the LHRH neuron microenvironment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-6766-4
                978-3-318-00353-6
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                1998
                August 1998
                04 September 1998
                : 5
                : 3-4
                : 193-202
                Affiliations
                a Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, La., USA; b Centro de Estudios Farmacológicos y Botánicos, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CEFYBO-CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina
                Article
                26337 Neuroimmunomodulation 1998;5:193–202
                10.1159/000026337
                9730686
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                References: 55, Pages: 10
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