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      Protective effects of extracts from Acer truncatum leaves on SLS-induced HaCaT cells


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          Introduction: A. truncatum Bunge (Sapindaceae or formerly Aceraceae) is a tall deciduous tree native to China. Traditionally, the leaves of A. truncatum are decocted and used by Chinese Mongolians, Koreans, and Tibetans to treat skin itching, dry cracks, and other skin ailments, which indicates A. truncatum leaves may have a potential inhibitory effect on various skin inflammations.

          Methods: To examine the protective effect against skin inflammations of A. truncatum leaf extract (ATLE), an in vitro dermatitis model was established using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SLS)-induced HaCaT cells. The anti-inflammatory effect of ATLE was evaluated by analyzing cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels.

          Results: Orthogonal experiments showed that the pretreatment with ATLE can reduce the IL-6 levels, PGE2 levels, and apoptosis increased in SLS-stimulated HaCaT cells, which indicates that ATLE has positive efficacy for dermatitis. Furthermore, three flavonoid compounds kaempferol-3- O- α-L-rhamnoside, quercetin-3- O- α-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol-3,7-di- O- α-L-rhamnoside, and 1,2,3,4,6-Penta- O-galloyl- β-D-glucopyranose (PGG) were isolated and identified. Among them, kaempferol-3,7-di- O- α-L-rhamnoside was isolated from this plant for the first time. These compounds have been proven to have an anti-inflammatory effect. They may contribute to the efficacy of A. truncatumin treating skin inflammation.

          Discussion: The results revealed that ATLE has the potential to be used as an additive in various skin care products to prevent skin inflammations and may be incorporated in formulations for topical application as a therapeutic approach against dermatitis.

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          Pathogen recognition and inflammatory signaling in innate immune defenses.

          The innate immune system constitutes the first line of defense against invading microbial pathogens and relies on a large family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which detect distinct evolutionarily conserved structures on pathogens, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Among the PRRs, the Toll-like receptors have been studied most extensively. Upon PAMP engagement, PRRs trigger intracellular signaling cascades ultimately culminating in the expression of a variety of proinflammatory molecules, which together orchestrate the early host response to infection, and also is a prerequisite for the subsequent activation and shaping of adaptive immunity. In order to avoid immunopathology, this system is tightly regulated by a number of endogenous molecules that limit the magnitude and duration of the inflammatory response. Moreover, pathogenic microbes have developed sophisticated molecular strategies to subvert host defenses by interfering with molecules involved in inflammatory signaling. This review presents current knowledge on pathogen recognition through different families of PRRs and the increasingly complex signaling pathways responsible for activation of an inflammatory and antimicrobial response. Moreover, medical implications are discussed, including the role of PRRs in primary immunodeficiencies and in the pathogenesis of infectious and autoimmune diseases, as well as the possibilities for translation into clinical and therapeutic applications.
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            IL-6 signaling in autoimmunity, chronic inflammation and inflammation-associated cancer.

            IL-6 activates various cell types carrying the membrane bound IL-6R (classical IL-6 signaling) as well as IL-6R(-) gp130(+) cells via the soluble IL-6R (IL-6 trans-signaling). IL-6 signaling plays a pivotal role in controlling the differentiation and activation of T lymphocytes by inducing the Jak/STAT-3 and the Ras/Erk/C/EBP pathways. In particular, IL-6 modulates the resistance of T cells against apoptosis, induces activation of T helper cells and controls the balance between regulatory T cells and Th17 cells. Importantly, recent findings suggest that blockade of IL-6 signaling is effective in treating experimental models of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis as well as models of inflammation-associated cancer. Thus, anti-IL-6/anti-IL-6R strategies emerge as promising novel approaches for therapy of inflammatory diseases in humans. In this review article, we discuss the latest findings on the role of IL-6 in experimental models of autoimmunity and cancer, as well as clinical perspectives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Null mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) determine major susceptibility to early-onset atopic dermatitis that persists into adulthood.

              Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease with a complex etiology in childhood and adult life. A significant proportion of childhood AD is transient, but in many cases it persists into adulthood. We have recently shown that null mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) are an important predisposing factor for childhood eczema and eczema-associated asthma, but persistence to adulthood has not been analyzed. Here we studied a cohort of adult patients with persistent AD, which had been present since early childhood. In this cohort, the combined allele frequency of the two common FLG null variants was 0.270 (cf. population frequency 0.046). This represents an odds ratio of 7.7 with 95% confidence interval of 5.3-10.9 and a chi2 P-value of 1.7 x 10(-53). Our data conclusively demonstrate that identification of FLG null alleles is an indicator of a poor prognosis in AD, predisposing to a form of eczema that starts in early infancy and persists into adulthood. This study helps to further define the nature of the AD phenotype associated with FLG null alleles.

                Author and article information

                Front Pharmacol
                Front Pharmacol
                Front. Pharmacol.
                Frontiers in Pharmacology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                15 March 2023
                : 14
                : 1068849
                [1] 1 Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environment in Minority Areas (Minzu University of China) , National Ethnic Affairs Commission , Beijing, China
                [2] 2 College of Life and Environmental Sciences , Minzu University of China , Beijing, China
                [3] 3 Key Laboratory of Plant Resource Conservation and Germplasm Innovation in Mountainous Region (Guizhou University) , Ministry of Education , Guiyang, China
                [4] 4 School of Liquor and Food Engineering , Guizhou University , Guiyang, China
                [5] 5 College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering , Beijing Technology and Business University , Beijing, China
                [6] 6 BTBU-TANGYI Innovation Center for the Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Bioengineering Raw Materials , Beijing, China
                [7] 7 Key Laboratory of Ethnomedicine (Minzu University of China) , Ministry of Education , Beijing, China
                [8] 8 Institute of National Security Studies , Minzu University of China , Beijing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Diana Simona Antal, Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania

                Reviewed by: Waqas Ahmad, University of Science Malaysia, Malaysia

                Zhi-Cong Dai, Jiangsu University, China

                *Correspondence: Min Wang, wangmin_216@ 123456163.com ; Chunlin Long, long.chunlin@ 123456muc.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Ethnopharmacology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology

                Copyright © 2023 Fan, Gu, Zhang, Wang, Xu, Wang and Long.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 13 October 2022
                : 06 March 2023
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China , doi 10.13039/501100001809;
                Funded by: Minzu University of China , doi 10.13039/501100013801;
                This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31761143001 and 31870316), Minzu University of China (2020MDJC03, 2022ZDPY10 and 2022GJAQ04), and First-class Discipline Construction Project in Guizhou Province (GDTGHZ2020003).
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                a. truncatum,dermatitis,interleukin 6,flavonoids,skin inflammations


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