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      Cause and Manner of Death Among Users of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids

      1 , 2 , 1

      Journal of Forensic Sciences

      ASTM International

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          Psychiatric and Medical Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

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            Cardiovascular effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids.

            Evidence has accumulated over the pst several years which associates androgenic-anabolic steroid (AAS) use with sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarction, altered serum lipoproteins, and cardiac hypertrophy in humans who habitually use these drugs. Even though some experimental data obtained from animals correlate well with the human findings, the adverse cardiovascular effects of AAS use are poorly understood. The evidence presented in this review suggests that there are at least four hypothetical models of AAS-induced adverse cardiovascular effects: 1) an atherogenic model involving the effects of AAS on lipoprotein concentrations; 2) a thrombosis model involving the effects of AAS on clotting factors and platelets; 3) a vasospasm model involving the effects of AAS on the vascular nitric oxide system; and 4) a direct myocardial injury model involving the effects of AAS on individual myocardial cells. Future studies should be directed at determining the exact mechanisms responsible for AAS-induced adverse cardiovascular effects, at determining the relative contribution of each of these models, and at identifying other possible contributing factors such as metabolism of these steroids and the effects of potential metabolites on various target organs.
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              Androgens, brain, and behavior

                (1996)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JFSCAS
                Journal of Forensic Sciences
                J. Forensic Sci.
                ASTM International
                00221198
                January 01 2000
                January 01 2000
                : 45
                : 1
                : 14635J
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Forensic Medicine, Karolinska Institute, S-171 77 Stockholm, SE.
                [2 ]Department of Forensic Medicine, Uppsala University, S-171 77 Stockholm, SE.
                Article
                10.1520/JFS14635J
                © 2000
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