A 73-year-old man was given a total of 1 mg of digoxin intravenously over 3 days, close to the time that he developed acute renal failure with oligo-anuria. He received no cardiac glycosides before or after this 3-day period. 2 days after the last dose, the serum digoxin concentration (SDC) was 2.9 ng/ml, yet a peak value of 4.2 ng/ml was reached only 11 days later. The SDC remained above 2 ng/ml for another week, until urine output began to increase appreciably. As renal function improved, the SDC gradually fell to become undetectable 32 days after the last dose. Values for apparent volume of distribution calculated from the total dose, and also determined after injection of tritiated digoxin, suggest that the rise in SDC in the absence of additional doses was due in large part to a decrease in the apparent volume of distribution. Dosage and parameters of toxicity should be carefully monitored in patients receiving digoxin who develop acute renal failure.