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      Evaluation of Madurahydroxylactone as a Slow Release Antibacterial Implant Coating

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          Abstract

          Madurahydroxylactone (MHL), a secondary metabolite with antibacterial activity was evaluated for its suitability to generate controlled drug release coatings on medical implant materials. A smooth and firmly attached layer could be produced from a precursor solution on various metallic implant materials. In physiological salt solutions these coatings dissolved within a time period up to one week. A combination of MHL with a broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic was used to create a coating that was active against all bacterial strains tested. The time period during which the coating remained active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. The results indicated a delayed drug release from single layer coatings in the course of seven days. MHL was biocompatible in cell culture assays and could after a delay even serve as a cell adhesion substrate for human or murine cells. The findings indicate a potential for MHL for the generation of delayed release antimicrobial implant coatings.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Genome and virulence determinants of high virulence community-acquired MRSA.

          A new type of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), designated community-acquired MRSA, is becoming increasingly noticeable in the community, some strains of which cause fatal infections in otherwise healthy individuals. By contrast with hospital-acquired MRSA, community-acquired MRSA is more susceptible to non b-lactam antibiotics. We investigated the high virulence potential of certain strains of this bacterium. We ascertained the whole genome sequence of MW2, a strain of community-acquired MRSA, by shotgun cloning and sequencing. MW2 caused fatal septicaemia and septic arthritis in a 16-month-old girl in North Dakota, USA, in 1998. The genome of this strain was compared with those of hospital-acquired MRSA strains, including N315 and Mu50. Meticillin resistance gene (mecA) in MW2 was carried by a novel allelic form (type IVa) of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), by contrast with type II in N315 and Mu50. Type IVa SCCmec did not carry any of the multiple antibiotic resistance genes reported in type II SCCmec. By contrast, 19 additional virulence genes were recorded in the MW2 genome. All but two of these virulence genes were noted in four of the seven genomic islands of MW2. MW2 carried a range of virulence and resistance genes that was distinct from those displayed on the chromosomes of extant S aureus strains. Most genes were carried by specific allelic forms of genomic islands in the MW2 chromosome. The combination of allelic forms of genomic islands is the genetic basis that determines the pathogenicity of medically important phenotypes of S aureus, including those of community-acquired MRSA strains.
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            Antibacterial coatings on titanium implants.

            Titanium and titanium alloys are key biomedical materials because of their good biocompatibility and mechanical properties. Nevertheless, infection on and around titanium implants still remains a problem which is usually difficult to treat and may lead to eventual implant removal. As a result, preventive measures are necessary to mitigate implant-frelated infection. One important strategy is to render the implant surface antibacterial by impeding the formation of a biofilm. A number of approaches have been proposed for this purpose and they are reviewed in this article. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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              Biofilm in implant infections: its production and regulation.

              A significant proportion of medical implants become the focus of a device-related infection, difficult to eradicate because bacteria that cause these infections live in well-developed biofilms. Biofilm is a microbial derived sessile community characterized by cells that are irreversibly attached to a substratum or interface to each other, embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. Bacterial adherence and biofilm production proceed in two steps: first, an attachment to a surface and, second, a cell-to-cell adhesion, with pluristratification of bacteria onto the artificial surface. The first step requires the mediation of bacterial surface proteins, the cardinal of which is similar to S. aureus autolysin and is denominated AtlE. In staphylococci the matrix of extracellular polymeric substances of biofilm is a polymer of beta-1,6-linked N-acetylglucosamine (PIA), whose synthesis is mediated by the ica operon. Biofilm formation is partially controlled by quorum sensing, an interbacterial communication mechanism dependent on population density. The principal implants that can be compromised by biofilm associated infections are: central venous catheters, heart valves, ventricular assist devices, coronary stents, neurosurgical ventricular shunts, implantable neurological stimulators, arthro-prostheses, fracture-fixation devices, inflatable penile implants, breast implants, cochlear implants, intraocular lenses, dental implants. Biofilms play an important role in the spread of antibiotic resistance. Within the high dense bacterial population, efficient horizontal transfer of resistance and virulence genes takes place. In the future, treatments that inhibit the transcription of biofilm controlling genes might be a successful strategy in inhibiting these infections.A significant proportion of medical implants become the focus of a device-related infection, difficult to eradicate because bacteria that cause these infections live in well-developed biofilms. Biofilm is a microbial derived sessile community characterized by cells that are irreversibly attached to a substratum or interface to each other, embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. Bacterial adherence and biofilm production proceed in two steps: first, an attachment to a surface and, second, a cell-to-cell adhesion, with pluristratification of bacteria onto the artificial surface. The first step requires the mediation of bacterial surface proteins, the cardinal of which is similar to S. aureus autolysin and is denominated AtlE. In staphylococci the matrix of extracellular polymeric substances of biofilm is a polymer of beta-1,6-linked N-acetylglucosamine (PIA), whose synthesis is mediated by the ica operon. Biofilm formation is partially controlled by quorum sensing, an interbacterial communication mechanism dependent on population density. The principal implants that can be compromised by biofilm associated infections are: central venous catheters, heart valves, ventricular assist devices, coronary stents, neurosurgical ventricular shunts, implantable neurological stimulators, arthro-prostheses, fracture-fixation devices, inflatable penile implants, breast implants, cochlear implants, intra-ocular lenses, dental implants. Biofilms play an important role in the spread of antibiotic resistance. Within the high dense bacterial population, efficient horizontal transfer of resistance and virulence genes takes place. In the future, treatments that inhibit the transcription of biofilm controlling genes might be a successful strategy in inhibiting these infections.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Open Biomed Eng J
                TOBEJ
                The Open Biomedical Engineering Journal
                Bentham Open
                1874-1207
                3 November 2010
                2010
                : 4
                : 263-270
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
                [2 ]Department of Otolaryngology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany
                [3 ]Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Biomedical Materials Science, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany
                [4 ]Department of Molecular and Applied Microbiology, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology-Hans Knoell Institute, Beutenbergstrasse 11a, 07745 Jena, Germany
                [5 ]INNOVENT e.V., Prüssingstrasse 27 B, D-07745 Jena, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]Address correspondence to this author at the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany; Tel: 0049 531 6181 5070; Fax: 0049 531 6181 5002; E-mail: pmu@ 123456helmholtz-hzi.de
                Article
                TOBEJ-4-263
                10.2174/1874120701004010263
                3102426
                21625377
                © Badar et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

                This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Article

                Biomedical engineering

                biofilm, cell culture, antibacterial, cell proliferation, infection., in vitro test

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