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      Signaling through focal adhesion kinase

      , ,

      Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology

      Elsevier BV

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          Focal adhesions, contractility, and signaling.

          Focal adhesions are sites of tight adhesion to the underlying extracellular matrix developed by cells in culture. They provided a structural link between the actin cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix and are regions of signal transduction that relate to growth control. The assembly of focal adhesions is regulated by the GTP-binding protein Rho. Rho stimulates contractility which, in cells that are tightly adherent to the substrate, generates isometric tension. In turn, this leads to the bundling of actin filaments and the aggregation of integrins (extracellular matrix receptors) in the plane of the membrane. The aggregation of integrins activates the focal adhesion kinase and leads to the assembly of a multicomponent signaling complex.
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            Autophosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK, directs SH2-dependent binding of pp60src.

            The phosphorylation of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) on tyrosine residues is a critical regulatory event that modulates catalytic activity and triggers the physical association of PTKs with Src homology 2 (SH2)-containing proteins. The integrin-linked focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK, exhibits extracellular matrix-dependent phosphorylation on tyrosine and physically associates with two nonreceptor PTKs, pp60src and pp59fyn, via their SH2 domains. Herein, we identify Tyr-397 as the major site of tyrosine phosphorylation on pp125FAK both in vivo and in vitro. Tyrosine 397 is located at the juncture of the N-terminal and catalytic domains, a novel site for PTK autophosphorylation. Mutation of Tyr-397 to a nonphosphorylatable residue dramatically impairs the phosphorylation of pp125FAK on tyrosine in vivo and in vitro. The mutation of Tyr-397 to Phe also inhibits the formation of stable complexes with pp60src in cells expressing Src and FAK397F, suggesting that autophosphorylation of pp125FAK may regulate the association of pp125FAK with Src family kinases in vivo. The identification of Tyr-397 as a major site for FAK autophosphorylation provides one of the first examples of a cellular protein containing a high-affinity binding site for a Src family kinase SH2 domain. This finding has implications for models describing the mechanisms of action of pp125FAK, the regulation of the Src family of PTKs, and signal transduction through the integrins.
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              Regulation of Cell Motility by Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase

              Cell interaction with adhesive proteins or growth factors in the extracellular matrix initiates Ras/ mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling. Evidence is provided that MAP kinase (ERK1 and ERK2) influences the cells' motility machinery by phosphorylating and, thereby, enhancing myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity leading to phosphorylation of myosin light chains (MLC). Inhibition of MAP kinase activity causes decreased MLCK function, MLC phosphorylation, and cell migration on extracellular matrix proteins. In contrast, expression of mutationally active MAP kinase kinase causes activation of MAP kinase leading to phosphorylation of MLCK and MLC and enhanced cell migration. In vitro results support these findings since ERK-phosphorylated MLCK has an increased capacity to phosphorylate MLC and shows increased sensitivity to calmodulin. Thus, we define a signaling pathway directly downstream of MAP kinase, influencing cell migration on the extracellular matrix.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
                Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
                Elsevier BV
                00796107
                April 1999
                April 1999
                : 71
                : 3-4
                : 435-478
                Article
                10.1016/S0079-6107(98)00052-2
                © 1999

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