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      Quercetin inhibits TNF-induced NF-kappaB transcription factor recruitment to proinflammatory gene promoters in murine intestinal epithelial cells.

      The Journal of Nutrition

      Animals, Cell Line, Chemokine CXCL10, Chemokine CXCL2, Chemokines, genetics, metabolism, Chemokines, CXC, Epithelial Cells, Gene Expression, drug effects, Genes, Reporter, Ileitis, Intestinal Mucosa, Mice, NF-kappa B, Phosphorylation, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt, Quercetin, pharmacology, Transcription Factor RelA, physiology, Transcription Factors, antagonists & inhibitors, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

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          Flavonoids may play an important role for adjunct nutritional therapy of chronic intestinal inflammation. In this study, we characterized the molecular mechanisms by which quercetin and its enteric bacterial metabolites, taxifolin, alphitonin, and 3, 4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid, inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-induced proinflammatory gene expression in the murine small intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line Mode-K as well as in heterozygous TNFDeltaARE/WT mice, a murine model of experimental ileitis. Quercetin inhibited TNF-induced interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) gene expression in Mode-K cells with effective inhibitory concentration of 40 and 44 micromol/L, respectively. Interestingly, taxifolin, alphitonin, and 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid did not inhibit TNF responses in IEC, suggesting that microbial transformation of quercetin completely abolished its anti-inflammatory effect. At the molecular level, quercetin inhibited Akt phosphorylation but did not inhibit TNF-induced RelA/I-kappaB phosphorylation and IkappaB degradation or TNF-alpha-induced nuclear factor-kappaB transcriptional activity. Most important for understanding the mechanism involved, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed inhibitory effects of quercetin on phospho-RelA recruitment to the IP-10 and MIP-2 gene promoters. In addition, and consistent with the lack of cAMP response element binding protein (CBP)/p300 recruitment and phosphorylation/acetylation of histone 3 at the promoter binding site, quercetin inhibited histone acetyl transferase activity. The oral application of quercetin to heterozygous TNFDeltaARE/WT mice [10 mg/(d x kg body wt)] significantly inhibited IP-10 and MIP-2 gene expression in primary ileal epithelial cells but did not affect tissue pathology. These studies support an anti-inflammatory effect of quercetin in epithelial cells through mechanisms that inhibit cofactor recruitment at the chromatin of proinflammatory genes.

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