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          Beyond resource efficiencies, green buildings aim to create healthy indoor environments for building occupants. In terms of improving occupant well-being, a unique case emerges for healthcare facilities, whose patients may be at a vulnerable state. In the U.S., the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system has become the most widely recognized certification system for green buildings, including green healthcare facilities and buildings. Hospitals with high total scores in the LEED rating system are green buildings but may not necessarily be the optimal green healthcare environment from a patient’s wellbeing perspective. Certified health-care facilities were analyzed in terms of their credit valuation to assess whether health-care facilities prioritize specific criteria that influence patient wellbeing and recovery time. Analysis of results indicate hospitals may be valuing the level of certification more than those credits that were deemed relevant for patient wellbeing and rate of recovery, either due to lack of information or due to economic constraints. To consolidate the previous results and to compare the performance of LEED certified green hospitals to the national average, the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey was analyzed for patients’ perspectives on the healthcare facility. Results indicate higher satisfaction in green hospitals’ overall patient care performance as well as a greater tendency to recommend green hospitals to others compared to the national average. No statistical significance was found for hospital cleanliness and quietness between green hospitals and the national average.

          • Hospital LEED scores not directly aligned with credits that affect patient wellbeing

          • HCAHPS survey results compared green hospitals to the national average

          • Overall patient satisfaction 3.6% higher in green hospitals versus non-green hospitals

          • Patients self-reported 5.6% more likeliness to recommend green hospitals to others

          • No statistical difference observed for hospital cleanliness or quietness

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          Most cited references37

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          View through a window may influence recovery from surgery

          R. Ulrich (1984)
          Records on recovery after cholecystectomy of patients in a suburban Pennsylvania hospital between 1972 and 1981 were examined to determine whether assignment to a room with a window view of a natural setting might have restorative influences. Twenty-three surgical patients assigned to rooms with windows looking out on a natural scene had shorter postoperative hospital stays, received fewer negative evaluative comments in nurses' notes, and took fewer potent analgesics than 23 matched patients in similar rooms with windows facing a brick building wall.
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            Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

            Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has substantially increased, and preventive and therapeutic drugs will probably become available within 10 years. Evidence of the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure on public health is growing. Observational and experimental studies have shown that noise exposure leads to annoyance, disturbs sleep and causes daytime sleepiness, affects patient outcomes and staff performance in hospitals, increases the occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and impairs cognitive performance in schoolchildren. In this Review, we stress the importance of adequate noise prevention and mitigation strategies for public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Development, implementation, and public reporting of the HCAHPS survey.

              The authors describe the history and development of the CAHPS Hospital Survey (also known as HCAHPS) and its associated protocols. The randomized mode experiment, vendor training, and "dry runs" that set the stage for initial public reporting are described. The rapid linkage of HCAHPS data to annual payment updates ("pay for reporting") is noted, which in turn led to the participation of approximately 3,900 general acute care hospitals (about 90% of all such United States hospitals). The authors highlight the opportunities afforded by this publicly reported data on hospital inpatients' experiences and perceptions of care. These data, reported on www.hospitalcompare.hhs. gov, facilitate the national comparison of patients' perspectives of hospital care and can be used alone or in conjunction with other clinical and outcome measures. Potential benefits include increased transparency, improved consumer decision making, and increased incentives for the delivery of high-quality health care.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Green Building
                College Publishing
                Fall 2020
                9 December 2020
                : 15
                : 4
                : 3-18
                Author notes

                1. University of Delaware, College of Earth, Ocean and Environment, 111 Robinson Hall, Newark, DE 19716, USA

                2. TED University, Department of Civil Engineering, Ziya Gökalp Cad. No:48, Kolej 06420, Ankara, Turkey

                * Corresponding Author

                Volumes 1-10 of JOGB are open access and do not require permission for use, though proper citation should be given. To view the licenses, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

                Page count
                Pages: 18
                RESEARCH ARTICLES

                Urban design & Planning,Civil engineering,Environmental management, Policy & Planning,Architecture,Environmental engineering
                green building,LEED Healthcare,patient satisfaction,green hospital,HCAHPS,hospital design


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