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      Pest categorisation of Bretziella fagacearum

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          Abstract

          Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health ( PLH) Panel performed a pest categorisation of Bretziella fagacearum, a well‐defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Ceratocystidaceae. The species was moved from the genus Ceratocystis to a new genus Bretziella following phylogenetic analysis of the species and its close relatives. The former species name Ceratocystis fagacearum is used in the Council Directive 2000/29/ EC. The pathogen is regulated in Annex IAI as a harmful organism whose introduction into the EU is banned. B. fagacearum is only reported from the USA, where it causes a wilt disease on Quercus spp. Other hosts are reported based on inoculation trials, although Chinese chestnut ( Castanea mollissima) is reported to be naturally infected. No North American oak species has been found to be immune to the disease. The European oak species Quercus robur, Quercus petraea and Quercus pubescens were found to be susceptible in inoculation experiments. The pest could enter the EU via wood (with and without bark, including wood packaging material), plants for planting and cut branches. Hosts and favourable climatic conditions are common in the EU, thus facilitating establishment. The pest would be able to spread following establishment by means of root grafts, insect vectors and movement of wood, plants for planting and other means. The pest introduction would have impacts in woodland and plantations, as oak wilt disease is often lethal in a short period of time. Wood treatment (debarking, kiln drying, fumigation), prompt removal of affected trees and creating root‐free zones between affected and healthy stands are available control measures. The main knowledge gaps concern (i) the survival of the fungus in wood during transport and the association with propagation material, (ii) the presence of suitable vectors in Europe and (iii) the relative susceptibility of the oak species native to Europe under natural conditions. The criteria assessed by the Panel for consideration as a potential quarantine pest are met. For regulated non‐quarantine pests, the criterion on the pest presence in the EU is not met.

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          Fauna Europaea – all European animal species on the web

          Abstract Fauna Europaea is Europe's main zoological taxonomic index, making the scientific names and distributions of all living, currently known, multicellular, European land and freshwater animals species integrally available in one authoritative database. Fauna Europaea covers about 260,000 taxon names, including 145,000 accepted (sub)species, assembled by a large network of (>400) leading specialists, using advanced electronic tools for data collations with data quality assured through sophisticated validation routines. Fauna Europaea started in 2000 as an EC funded FP5 project and provides a unique taxonomic reference for many user-groups such as scientists, governments, industries, nature conservation communities and educational programs. Fauna Europaea was formally accepted as an INSPIRE standard for Europe, as part of the European Taxonomic Backbone established in PESI. Fauna Europaea provides a public web portal at faunaeur.org with links to other key biodiversity services, is installed as a taxonomic backbone in wide range of biodiversity services and actively contributes to biodiversity informatics innovations in various initiatives and EC programs.
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            Applying quality assurance procedures to environmental monitoring data: a case study.

            Managing data in the context of environmental monitoring is associated with a number of particular difficulties. These can be broadly split into issues originating from the inherent heterogeneity of the parameters sampled, problems related to the long time scale of most monitoring programmes and situations that arise when attempting to maximise cost-effectiveness. The complexity of environmental systems is reflected in the considerable effort and cost required to collect good quality data describing the influencing factors that can improve our understanding of the interrelationships and allow us to draw conclusions about how changes will affect the systems. The resulting information is also frequently elaborate, costly and irreplaceable. Since the quality of the results obtained from analysing the data can only be as good as the data, proper management practices should be considered at all stages of the monitoring activity, if the value of the information is to be properly exploited. Using a Quality Assurance system can aid considerably in improving the overall quality of a database, and good metadata will help in the interpretation of the results. The benefits of implementing Quality Assurance principles to project management and data validation are demonstrated for the information collected for the long-term monitoring of the effects of air pollution on the forest environment under Forest Focus. However, there are limits in the ability of any computer system to detect erroneous or poor quality data, and the best approach is to minimise errors at the collection phase of the project as far as possible.
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              Robust modelling of the impacts of climate change on the habitat suitability of forest tree species

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EFSA J
                EFSA J
                10.1002/(ISSN)1831-4732
                EFS2
                EFSA Journal
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                1831-4732
                22 February 2018
                February 2018
                : 16
                : 2 ( doiID: 10.1002/efs2.2018.16.issue-2 )
                : e05185
                Author notes
                [*] Correspondence: alpha@ 123456efsa.europa.eu
                Article
                EFS25185
                10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5185
                7009401
                590de8de-5e44-486b-a69d-bb425712e324
                © 2018 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                History
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 4, Pages: 30, Words: 14450
                Categories
                Scientific Opinion
                Scientific Opinion
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                February 2018
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.7.5 mode:remove_FC converted:21.01.2020

                european union,forest pathology,oak wilt,pest risk,plant pest,quarantine,tree health

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