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      Phosphate Salivary Secretion in Hemodialysis Patients: Implications for the Treatment of Hyperphosphatemia

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Hyperphosphatemia is recognized as contributing to the increased risk of cardiac death in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients. Currently available pharmacologic treatment for hyperphosphatemia is based on phosphate binders but, despite treatment, only half of the patients fall within the range for serum phosphorus of the K/DOQI guidelines. Therefore, there is a need to identify other therapeutic approaches in order to reduce serum phosphate. Salivary fluid contains phosphate which, if related to the daily salivary secretion (1,000–1,880 ml), may raise interest in order to identify further additive approaches to phosphorus removal in uremic patients, while data about salivary phosphate secretion in ESRD patients are controversial. Methods: This study evaluates salivary phosphate secretion in 68 HD patients compared with 30 healthy subjects. Saxon’s test confirmed normal salivary function in patients and controls. Salivary calcium and serum phosphate, calcium and PTH were also measured. Results: HD patients had significantly higher salivary phosphorus levels compared with healthy controls: 30.35 (26.5–34.6) vs. 12.1 (10.58–14.73) mg/dl (p < 0.0001), and this significantly correlated (p < 0.0001) with serum phosphorus. Multiple regression analysis confirmed serum phosphorus as the only predictor (p < 0.0001) of salivary phosphorus. Conclusions: Given the functional secretive similarity between salivary glands and the kidneys, this increased salivary phosphate secretion might be interpreted as being compensatory in the presence of renal failure. Absorption of the increased salivary phosphate secretion, however, may worsen hyperphosphatemia; therefore, the binding of salivary phosphate might be considered as a further therapeutic approach to hyperphosphatemia in ESRD.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Arterial stiffening and vascular calcifications in end-stage renal disease.

          Epidemiological studies have identified aortic stiffness as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In these patients, aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was associated with mediacalcosis, but the influence of arterial calcifications on the viscoelastic properties of large arteries was not well characterized. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the influence of arterial calcifications on arterial stiffness in stable haemodialysed patients. We studied 120 stable ESRD patients on haemodialysis. All patients underwent B-mode ultrasonography of common carotid artery (CCA), aorta, and femoral arteries to determine CCA distensibility, the elastic incremental modulus (Einc), and the presence of vascular calcifications. All patients underwent measurement of aortic PWV and echocardiogram. The presence of calcifications was analysed semiquantitatively as a score (0 to 4) according to the number of arterial sites with calcifications. Our observations indicate that arterial and aortic stiffness is significantly influenced by the presence and extent of arterial calcifications. The extent of arterial calcifications is in part responsible for increased left ventricular afterload, and is inversely correlated with stroke volume. The influence of calcifications is independent of the role of ageing and blood pressure. Arterial calcifications density increases with age, duration of haemodialysis, the fibrinogen level, and the prescribed dose of calcium-based phosphate binders. The results of this study showed that the presence of vascular calcifications in ESRD patients was associated with increased stiffness of large capacity, elastic-type arteries, like the aorta and CCA. The extent of arterial calcifications increased with the use of calcium-based phosphate-binders.
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            Vascular calcification: a stiff challenge for the nephrologist: does preventing bone disease cause arterial disease?

            There has been an explosion of interest in vascular calcification in the last 5 years. Four key "germinal" findings have fallen onto very fertile soil. First, on the background of an increasing cardiovascular disease burden it has been found that at least cross-sectionally, and in a limited fashion prospectively, achieved dialysis plasma phosphate levels are linked to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Second, there are increasing reports of calcific uremic arteriolopathy in Australia and the United States. Third, we know know that the mechanical properties of the carotid artery, and the aorta, have a profound influence on survival for dialysis patients. Vascular calcification itself (as assessed by x-ray films and ultrasound) has been linked to aortic stiffness. Fourth, increasing numbers of studies are showing extremely extensive coronary artery calcification (CAC) in dialysis patients, even at a young age. From these apparently unlinked observations the following assertion has been posited-that in the widespread (over) use of calcium-containing oral phosphate binders (OPB) to prevent uremic osteodystrophy in our dialysis population we have unwittingly accelerated widespread uremic vasculopathy and thereby contributed to premature cardiovascular mortality. It is the purpose of this article to discuss vascular calcification (and particularly CAC) in dialysis patients as we understand it today. We will review the published series, with special reference to the Sevelamer Treat to Goal trial and also discuss the new Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (K-DOQI) guidelines on the use of phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease.
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              Hyperphosphatemia aggravates cardiac fibrosis and microvascular disease in experimental uremia.

              Hyperphosphatemia is a known predictor of cardiovascular death and specifically of cardiac death in hemodialysis patients. The pathomechanisms involved have not been completely clarified. While a number of observations suggest an important role of hyperphosphatemia and positive calcium balance on atherosclerosis and calcification of the coronary conduit arteries, independent effects on postcoronary microvessels and on cardiac fibrosis have not been excluded. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were sham operated (N = 14) or subtotally nephrectomized (SNX, N = 17) and subsequently placed on low phosphorus (0.08% w/w) and high phosphorus (1.2% w/w) diet under pair-feeding conditions. After 8 weeks, serum chemistry and inhibitory parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured, and the hearts were harvested using perfusion fixation. Arteriolar thickness and volume density of the interstitium (excluding vessels) were quantitated using stereologic techniques. In SNX animals with moderate renal failure serum phosphorus concentrations were higher than in sham-operated controls on low phosphorus diet (1.7 +/- 0.37 mmol/L) and were significantly higher in SNX + high phosphorus diet (2.33 +/- 0.23 mmol/L) compared to SNX + low phosphorus diet (1.95 +/- 0.32 mmol/L; P < 0.05). In sham-operated controls, dietary phosphorus content had no effect on cardiac morphologic indices. In contrast, in SNX + high phosphorus diet the index of interstitial cardiac fibrosis was significantly higher (3.22 +/- 0.44%) than in SNX + low phosphorus (2.75 +/- 0.46%) or in sham-operated controls (2.5 +/- 0.05% on high phosphorus and 2.4 +/- 0.89 on low phosphorus, respectively). In SNX + high phosphorus (14.0 +/- 9.0 microm), but not in SNX + low phosphorus (9.2 +/- 4.5 microm), arterial wall thickness was significantly higher compared to sham-operated controls (10.2 +/- 5.1 on high phosphorus and 9.8 +/- 5.0 micro;m on low phosphorus, respectively). The data were confirmed in an independent repeat experiment. High dietary phosphorus and hyperphosphatemia have significant effects on cardiac fibrosis and arterial wall thickening. Such abnormalities of cardiac architecture may be relevant for the increased cardiac risk in hyperphosphatemic uremic patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEP
                Nephron Physiol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2137
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2137
                2007
                February 2007
                12 January 2007
                : 105
                : 3
                : p52-p55
                Affiliations
                Departments of aNephrology and bPhysiology, University of Messina, cNephrology and Dialysis Units, Papardo Hospital, Messina, dDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinica Medica 4, University of Padua, Padua, Italy
                Article
                98544 Nephron Physiol 2007;105:p52–p55
                10.1159/000098544
                17220638
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 17, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/98544
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Phosphate, salivary, Hyperphosphatemia

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