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      Carotid intima-media thickness is associated with cognitive deficiency in hypertensive patients with elevated central systolic blood pressure

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          Abstract

          Background

          The role of hypertension in the loss of cognitive function is controversial. Relationships between hypertension and increases in cerebral vascular resistance, diffused lesions and multiple lacunar infarcts of the white matter are well known. Thus, the objectives of this study were: to evaluate the relationship between hypertension and cognitive dysfunction (CD), identify risk factors and determine the association between early markers of vascular disease and CD in hypertensive individuals.

          Methods

          Two hundred individuals aged between 40 and 80 years old were evaluated in this cross-sectional prospective study. Fifty participants were controls (CT). The remaining 150 hypertensive patients were subdivided into two groups, those with CD (HCD) and those without CD (HNCD). All participants underwent clinical evaluations and biochemical blood tests were performed. CD was investigated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) following the guidelines for its use in Brazil. The impact of hypertension on the arterial bed was assessed by identifying and measuring changes in the intima-media thickness (IMT) by vascular ultrasonography of the carotid arteries and analyses of the central blood pressure and Augmentation Index by applanation tonometry of the radial artery.

          Results

          There were no significant differences in the total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides plasma concentrations between the three groups. The serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate were within normal ranges for all three groups. A significantly lower MMSE score was recorded for the HCD Group compared to the HNCD and CT Groups (p-value < 0.05).

          The IMT was significantly different between the HNCD and HCD Groups (p-value = 0.0124). A significant difference in the IMT was also observed between hypertensive patients and the CT Group (p-value < 0.0001). Age, low-density cholesterol, high-density cholesterol, triglycerides and IMT increased the Odds Ratio for cognitive dysfunction.

          The central systolic pressure was significantly higher in the HCD and HNCD Groups compared to CT Group (p-value < 0.0001).

          Conclusions

          Hypertensive patients with CD have changes in the vascular morphology characterized by an increased carotid IMT, enhanced atherosclerotic lipid profile and impaired hemodynamic functional manifested by elevated central systolic blood pressure.

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          Most cited references 87

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          Population-based norms for the Mini-Mental State Examination by age and educational level.

          To report the distribution of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores by age and educational level. National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program surveys conducted between 1980 and 1984. Community populations in New Haven, Conn; Baltimore, Md; St Louis, Mo; Durham, NC; and Los Angeles, Calif. A total of 18,056 adult participants selected by probability sampling within census tracts and households. Summary scores for the MMSE are given in the form of mean, median, and percentile distributions specific for age and educational level. The MMSE scores were related to both age and educational level. There was an inverse relationship between MMSE scores and age, ranging from a median of 29 for those 18 to 24 years of age, to 25 for individuals 80 years of age and older. The median MMSE score was 29 for individuals with at least 9 years of schooling, 26 for those with 5 to 8 years of schooling, and 22 for those with 0 to 4 years of schooling. Cognitive performance as measured by the MMSE varies within the population by age and education. The cause of this variation has yet to be determined. Mini-Mental State Examination scores should be used to identify current cognitive difficulties and not to make formal diagnoses. The results presented should prove to be useful to clinicians who wish to compare an individual patient's MMSE scores with a population reference group and to researchers making plans for new studies in which cognitive status is a variable of interest.
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            Effects of blood pressure lowering with perindopril and indapamide therapy on dementia and cognitive decline in patients with cerebrovascular disease.

            High blood pressure and stroke are associated with increased risks of dementia and cognitive impairment. This study aimed to determine whether blood pressure lowering would reduce the risks of dementia and cognitive decline among individuals with cerebrovascular disease. The Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study (PROGRESS) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted among 6105 people with prior stroke or transient ischemic attack. Participants were assigned to either active treatment (perindopril for all participants and indapamide for those with neither an indication for nor a contraindication to a diuretic) or matching placebo(s). The primary outcomes for these analyses were dementia (using DSM-IV criteria) and cognitive decline (a decline of 3 or more points in the Mini-Mental State Examination score). During a mean follow-up of 3.9 years, dementia was documented in 193 (6.3%) of the 3051 randomized participants in the actively treated group and 217 (7.1%) of the 3054 randomized participants in the placebo group (relative risk reduction, 12% [95% confidence interval, -8% to 28%]; P =.2). Cognitive decline occurred in 9.1% of the actively treated group and 11.0% of the placebo group (risk reduction, 19% [95% confidence interval, 4% to 32%]; P =.01). The risks of the composite outcomes of dementia with recurrent stroke and of cognitive decline with recurrent stroke were reduced by 34% (95% confidence interval, 3% to 55%) (P =.03) and 45% (95% confidence interval, 21% to 61%) (P<.001), respectively, with no clear effect on either dementia or cognitive decline in the absence of recurrent stroke. Active treatment was associated with reduced risks of dementia and cognitive decline associated with recurrent stroke. These findings further support the recommendation that blood pressure lowering with perindopril and indapamide therapy be considered for all patients with cerebrovascular disease.
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              Blood pressure as a cardiovascular risk factor: prevention and treatment.

               W Kannel (2015)
              - To examine the prevalence, incidence, predisposing factors for hypertension, its hazards as an ingredient of the cardiovascular risk profile, and the implications of this information for prevention and treatment. - Prospective longitudinal analysis of 36-year follow-up data from the Framingham Study of the relation of antecedent blood pressure to occurrence of subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality depending on the metabolically linked burden of associated risk factors. - Hypertension is one of the most prevalent and powerful contributors to cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death in the United States. There is, on average, a 20 mm Hg systolic and 10 mm Hg diastolic increment increase in blood pressure from age 30 to 65 years. Isolated systolic hypertension is the dominant variety. There is no evidence of a decline in the prevalence of hypertension over 4 decades despite improvements in its detection and treatment. Hypertension contributes to all of the major atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease outcomes increasing risk, on average, 2- to 3-fold. Coronary disease, the most lethal and common sequela, deserves highest priority. Hypertension clusters with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and obesity, occurring in isolation in less than 20%. The hazard depends on the number of these associated metabolically linked risk factors present. Coexistent overt cardiovascular disease also influences the hazard and choice of therapy. - The absence of a decline in the prevalence of hypertension indicates an urgent need for primary prevention by weight control, exercise, and reduced salt and alcohol intake. The urgency and choice of therapy of existing hypertension should be based on the multivariate cardiovascular risk profile that more appropriately targets hypertensive persons for treatment and prevention of cardiovascular sequelae.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cardiovasc Ultrasound
                Cardiovasc Ultrasound
                Cardiovascular Ultrasound
                BioMed Central
                1476-7120
                2012
                18 October 2012
                : 10
                : 41
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Hypertension Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine, State Medical School of São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP), Rua: Las Vegas 200, São José do Rio Preto, SP CEP 15093-010, Brazil
                [2 ]Cardiovascular Pharmacology Laboratory, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP CEP 13414-093, Brazil
                Article
                1476-7120-10-41
                10.1186/1476-7120-10-41
                3495224
                23078629
                Copyright ©2012 Dias et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Research

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