Host specificity of parasites is important for the understanding of evolutionary strategies of parasitism that would be a basis of predictions of the disease expansion when parasitized hosts invade new environments. The nematode order Oxyurida is an interesting parasite group for studying the evolution of parasitism as it includes parasites of both invertebrates and vertebrates. In our survey, we found that the smokybrown cockroach Periplaneta fuliginosa was primarily infected with only one nematode species Leidynema appendiculatum. In two cases, L. appendiculatum was isolated from two additional cockroach species Pycnoscelus surinamensis, sold in Japan as a reptile food, and Blatta lateralis, captured in the field and cultured in the laboratory. Inoculation of L. appendiculatum into three additional cockroach species P. japonica, Blattella nipponica, and P. surinamensis also resulted in parasitism. Infection prevalence was high, and timing of postembryonic development from hatched nematode larva to mature adult in these hosts was identical with that in P. fuliginosa. While ecological interactions strongly determine the host range, such broad infectivity is still possible in this parasitic nematode.