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      Broad infectivity of Leidynema appendiculatum (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatidae) parasite of the smokybrown cockroach Periplaneta fuliginosa (Blattodea: Blattidae)

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      Ecology and Evolution

      John Wiley and Sons Inc.

      cockroach, host range, invasive species, oxyurida, parasitic nematode

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          Abstract

          Host specificity of parasites is important for the understanding of evolutionary strategies of parasitism that would be a basis of predictions of the disease expansion when parasitized hosts invade new environments. The nematode order Oxyurida is an interesting parasite group for studying the evolution of parasitism as it includes parasites of both invertebrates and vertebrates. In our survey, we found that the smokybrown cockroach Periplaneta fuliginosa was primarily infected with only one nematode species Leidynema appendiculatum. In two cases, L. appendiculatum was isolated from two additional cockroach species Pycnoscelus surinamensis, sold in Japan as a reptile food, and Blatta lateralis, captured in the field and cultured in the laboratory. Inoculation of L. appendiculatum into three additional cockroach species P. japonica, Blattella nipponica, and P. surinamensis also resulted in parasitism. Infection prevalence was high, and timing of postembryonic development from hatched nematode larva to mature adult in these hosts was identical with that in P. fuliginosa. While ecological interactions strongly determine the host range, such broad infectivity is still possible in this parasitic nematode.

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          Most cited references 36

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          MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0.

          We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny. A new Timetree Wizard in MEGA6 facilitates this timetree inference by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify the phylogeny and calibration constraints step-by-step. This version also contains enhanced algorithms to search for the optimal trees under evolutionary criteria and implements a more advanced memory management that can double the size of sequence data sets to which MEGA can be applied. Both GUI and command-line versions of MEGA6 can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            Dating of the human-ape splitting by a molecular clock of mitochondrial DNA.

            A new statistical method for estimating divergence dates of species from DNA sequence data by a molecular clock approach is developed. This method takes into account effectively the information contained in a set of DNA sequence data. The molecular clock of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was calibrated by setting the date of divergence between primates and ungulates at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (65 million years ago), when the extinction of dinosaurs occurred. A generalized least-squares method was applied in fitting a model to mtDNA sequence data, and the clock gave dates of 92.3 +/- 11.7, 13.3 +/- 1.5, 10.9 +/- 1.2, 3.7 +/- 0.6, and 2.7 +/- 0.6 million years ago (where the second of each pair of numbers is the standard deviation) for the separation of mouse, gibbon, orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzee, respectively, from the line leading to humans. Although there is some uncertainty in the clock, this dating may pose a problem for the widely believed hypothesis that the pipedal creature Australopithecus afarensis, which lived some 3.7 million years ago at Laetoli in Tanzania and at Hadar in Ethiopia, was ancestral to man and evolved after the human-ape splitting. Another likelier possibility is that mtDNA was transferred through hybridization between a proto-human and a proto-chimpanzee after the former had developed bipedalism.
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              Death of an order: a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic study confirms that termites are eusocial cockroaches.

              Termites are instantly recognizable mound-builders and house-eaters: their complex social lifestyles have made them incredibly successful throughout the tropics. Although known as 'white ants', they are not ants and their relationships with other insects remain unclear. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses, the most comprehensive yet attempted, show that termites are social cockroaches, no longer meriting being classified as a separate order (Isoptera) from the cockroaches (Blattodea). Instead, we propose that they should be treated as a family (Termitidae) of cockroaches. It is surprising to find that a group of wood-feeding cockroaches has evolved full sociality, as other ecologically dominant fully social insects (e.g. ants, social bees and social wasps) have evolved from solitary predatory wasps.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                koichihasegawa@isc.chubu.ac.jp
                Journal
                Ecol Evol
                Ecol Evol
                10.1002/(ISSN)2045-7758
                ECE3
                Ecology and Evolution
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2045-7758
                23 March 2018
                April 2018
                : 8
                : 8 ( doiID: 10.1002/ece3.2018.8.issue-8 )
                : 3908-3918
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Environmental Biology College of Bioscience & Biotechnology Chubu University Kasugai Japan
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Koichi Hasegawa, Department of Environmental Biology, College of Bioscience & Biotechnology, Chubu University, Kasugai, Japan.

                Email: koichihasegawa@ 123456isc.chubu.ac.jp

                Article
                ECE33948
                10.1002/ece3.3948
                5916268
                © 2018 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Pages: 11, Words: 7459
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: JSPS KAKENHI
                Award ID: 15J09961
                Funded by: Institute of the Biological Function, Chubu University
                Categories
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                ece33948
                April 2018
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:version=5.3.7 mode:remove_FC converted:25.04.2018

                Evolutionary Biology

                cockroach, host range, invasive species, oxyurida, parasitic nematode

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