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      Overview of the prevalence, impact, and management of depression and anxiety in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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          Abstract

          More than one third of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety. This review aims to provide an overview of the burden of depression and anxiety in those with COPD and to outline the contemporary advances and challenges in the management of depression and anxiety in COPD. Symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD lead to worse health outcomes, including impaired health-related quality of life and increased mortality risk. Depression and anxiety also increase health care utilization rates and costs. Although the quality of the data varies considerably, the cumulative evidence shows that complex interventions consisting of pulmonary rehabilitation interventions with or without psychological components improve symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD. Cognitive behavioral therapy is also an effective intervention for managing depression in COPD, but treatment effects are small. Cognitive behavioral therapy could potentially lead to greater benefits in depression and anxiety in people with COPD if embedded in multidisciplinary collaborative care frameworks, but this hypothesis has not yet been empirically assessed. Mindfulness-based treatments are an alternative option for the management of depression and anxiety in people with long-term conditions, but their efficacy is unproven in COPD. Beyond pulmonary rehabilitation, the evidence about optimal approaches for managing depression and anxiety in COPD remains unclear and largely speculative. Future research to evaluate the effectiveness of novel and integrated care approaches for the management of depression and anxiety in COPD is warranted.

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          Most cited references 91

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          Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.

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            Twelve-month and lifetime prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of anxiety and mood disorders in the United States.

            Estimates of 12-month and lifetime prevalence and of lifetime morbid risk (LMR) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) anxiety and mood disorders are presented based on US epidemiological surveys among people aged 13+. The presentation is designed for use in the upcoming DSM-5 manual to provide more coherent estimates than would otherwise be available. Prevalence estimates are presented for the age groups proposed by DSM-5 workgroups as the most useful to consider for policy planning purposes. The LMR/12-month prevalence estimates ranked by frequency are as follows: major depressive episode: 29.9%/8.6%; specific phobia: 18.4/12.1%; social phobia: 13.0/7.4%; post-traumatic stress disorder: 10.1/3.7%; generalized anxiety disorder: 9.0/2.0%; separation anxiety disorder: 8.7/1.2%; panic disorder: 6.8%/2.4%; bipolar disorder: 4.1/1.8%; agoraphobia: 3.7/1.7%; obsessive-compulsive disorder: 2.7/1.2. Four broad patterns of results are most noteworthy: first, that the most common (lifetime prevalence/morbid risk) lifetime anxiety-mood disorders in the United States are major depression (16.6/29.9%), specific phobia (15.6/18.4%), and social phobia (10.7/13.0%) and the least common are agoraphobia (2.5/3.7%) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (2.3/2.7%); second, that the anxiety-mood disorders with the earlier median ages-of-onset are phobias and separation anxiety disorder (ages 15-17) and those with the latest are panic disorder, major depression, and generalized anxiety disorder (ages 23-30); third, that LMR is considerably higher than lifetime prevalence for most anxiety-mood disorders, although the magnitude of this difference is much higher for disorders with later than earlier ages-of-onset; and fourth, that the ratio of 12-month to lifetime prevalence, roughly characterizing persistence, varies meaningfully in ways consistent with independent evidence about differential persistence of these disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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              The efficacy of psychological, educational, and behavioral treatment. Confirmation from meta-analysis.

              Conventional reviews of research on the efficacy of psychological, educational, and behavioral treatments often find considerable variation in outcome among studies and, as a consequence, fail to reach firm conclusions about the overall effectiveness of the interventions in question. In contrast meta-analytic reviews show a strong, dramatic pattern of positive overall effects that cannot readily be explained as artifacts of meta-analytic technique or generalized placebo effects. Moreover, the effects are not so small that they can be dismissed as lacking practical or clinical significance. Although meta-analysis has limitations, there are good reasons to believe that its results are more credible than those of conventional reviews and to conclude that well-developed psychological, educational, and behavioral treatment is generally efficacious.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2014
                13 November 2014
                : 9
                : 1289-1306
                Affiliations
                [1 ]National Institute for Health Research School for Primary Care Research, Centre for Primary Care, Institute of Population Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, UK
                [2 ]Department of Psychiatry, Manchester Mental Health and Social Care Trust, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK
                [3 ]National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care – Greater Manchester and Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Peter A Coventry, National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK, Tel +44 016 1306 7653, Fax +44 016 1275 7600, Email peter.a.coventry@ 123456manchester.ac.uk
                Article
                copd-9-1289
                10.2147/COPD.S72073
                4235478
                © 2014 Panagioti et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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