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      Progesterone-Receptive Dopaminergic and Neuropeptide Y Neurons Project from the Arcuate Nucleus to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Rich Regions of the Ovine Preoptic Area

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          Progesterone inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in sheep through an interneuronal system located in the mediobasal hypothalamus. This study focused on known inhibitors of GnRH secretion in sheep, dopamine and neuropeptide Y (NPY). As the distributions of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)- and NPY-immunoreactive neurons overlap with progesterone receptors (PR) in the arcuate nucleus, we hypothesized that, if these neurons mediate, at least partially, the inhibitory feedback signal of progesterone, then they should co-express PRs. Fluorogold (FG), a retrograde tracer, was injected into the preoptic area of ovariectomized ewes pretreated with estrogen and progesterone. When the FG injection site encompassed at least 80 GnRH neurons, sections from the arcuate nucleus were processed using dual immunocytochemistry for PR and either TH or NPY. We found that 30% of PR-immunoreactive, 12% of TH-containing and 21% of NPY-synthesizing neurons project toward this GnRH-rich region. Of the PR/TH dual-labeled cells, which represent 21% of PR and 31% of TH cells, respectively, 22% displayed FG labeling. Of the PR/NPY neurons, which account for 19% of PR and 67% of NPY neurons, respectively, 26% were FG fluorescent. This study suggests that subsets of arcuate nucleus dopaminergic and NPY neurons may transduce, at least in part, the progesterone-mediated inhibition of GnRH secretion.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Siderophore-based iron acquisition and pathogen control.

          High-affinity iron acquisition is mediated by siderophore-dependent pathways in the majority of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria and fungi. Considerable progress has been made in characterizing and understanding mechanisms of siderophore synthesis, secretion, iron scavenging, and siderophore-delivered iron uptake and its release. The regulation of siderophore pathways reveals multilayer networks at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Due to the key role of many siderophores during virulence, coevolution led to sophisticated strategies of siderophore neutralization by mammals and (re)utilization by bacterial pathogens. Surprisingly, hosts also developed essential siderophore-based iron delivery and cell conversion pathways, which are of interest for diagnostic and therapeutic studies. In the last decades, natural and synthetic compounds have gained attention as potential therapeutics for iron-dependent treatment of infections and further diseases. Promising results for pathogen inhibition were obtained with various siderophore-antibiotic conjugates acting as "Trojan horse" toxins and siderophore pathway inhibitors. In this article, general aspects of siderophore-mediated iron acquisition, recent findings regarding iron-related pathogen-host interactions, and current strategies for iron-dependent pathogen control will be reviewed. Further concepts including the inhibition of novel siderophore pathway targets are discussed.
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            Mycobacterial Esx-3 is required for mycobactin-mediated iron acquisition.

            The Esx secretion pathway is conserved across Gram-positive bacteria. Esx-1, the best-characterized system, is required for virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, although its precise function during infection remains unclear. Esx-3, a paralogous system present in all mycobacterial species, is required for growth in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that mycobacteria lacking Esx-3 are defective in acquiring iron. To compete for the limited iron available in the host and the environment, these organisms use mycobactin, high-affinity iron-binding molecules. In the absence of Esx-3, mycobacteria synthesize mycobactin but are unable to use the bound iron and are impaired severely for growth during macrophage infection. Mycobacteria thus require a specialized secretion system for acquiring iron from siderophores.
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              Global analysis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zur (FurB) regulon.

              The proteins belonging to the Fur family are global regulators of gene expression involved in the response to several environmental stresses and to the maintenance of divalent cation homeostasis. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes two Fur-like proteins, FurA and a protein formerly annotated FurB. Since in this paper we show that it represents a zinc uptake regulator, we refer to it as Zur. The gene encoding Zur is found in an operon together with the gene encoding a second transcriptional regulator (Rv2358). In a previous work we demonstrated that Rv2358 is responsible for the zinc-dependent repression of the Rv2358-zur operon, favoring the hypothesis that these genes represent key regulators of zinc homeostasis. In this study we generated a zur mutant in M. tuberculosis, examined its phenotype, and characterized the Zur regulon by DNA microarray analysis. Thirty-two genes, presumably organized in 16 operons, were found to be upregulated in the zur mutant. Twenty-four of them belonged to eight putative transcriptional units preceded by a conserved 26-bp palindrome. Electrophoretic mobility shift experiments demonstrated that Zur binds to this palindrome in a zinc-dependent manner, suggesting its direct regulation of these genes. The proteins encoded by Zur-regulated genes include a group of ribosomal proteins, three putative metal transporters, the proteins belonging to early secretory antigen target 6 (ESAT-6) cluster 3, and three additional proteins belonging to the ESAT-6/culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) family known to contain immunodominant epitopes in the T-cell response to M. tuberculosis infection.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                January 2006
                27 January 2006
                : 82
                : 1
                : 21-31
                aUniversity of Wyoming, Department of Zoology & Physiology, Laramie, Wyo., USA; bINRA-PRC, Nouzilly, France; cPrince Henry’s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Australia, and dDepartment of Preclinical Veterinary Studies, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, Glasgow, UK
                90122 Neuroendocrinology 2005;82:21–31
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 67, Pages: 11
                Original Paper


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