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      Expression of the T Cell-specific Adapter Protein in Human Tissues

      , , , ,

      Scandinavian Journal of Immunology

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Six-of-the-best: unique contributions of γδ T cells to immunology.

          γδ T cells are a unique and conserved population of lymphocytes that have been the subject of a recent explosion of interest owing to their essential contributions to many types of immune response and immunopathology. But what does the integration of recent and long-established studies really tell us about these cells and their place in immunology? The time is ripe to consider the evidence for their unique and crucial functions. We conclude that whereas B cells and αβ T cells are commonly thought to contribute primarily to the antigen-specific effector and memory phases of immunity, γδ T cells are distinct in that they combine conventional adaptive features (inherent in their T cell receptors and pleiotropic effector functions) with rapid, innate-like responses that can place them in the initiation phase of immune reactions. This underpins a revised perspective on lymphocyte biology and the regulation of immunogenicity.
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            Positive and negative selection of T cells.

            A functional immune system requires the selection of T lymphocytes expressing receptors that are major histocompatibility complex restricted but tolerant to self-antigens. This selection occurs predominantly in the thymus, where lymphocyte precursors first assemble a surface receptor. In this review we summarize the current state of the field regarding the natural ligands and molecular factors required for positive and negative selection and discuss a model for how these disparate outcomes can be signaled via the same receptor. We also discuss emerging data on the selection of regulatory T cells. Such cells require a high-affinity interaction with self-antigens, yet differentiate into regulatory cells instead of being eliminated.
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              Memory T cell subsets, migration patterns, and tissue residence.

              Tissues such as the skin and mucosae are frequently exposed to microbial pathogens. Infectious agents must be quickly and efficiently controlled by our immune system, but the low frequency of naive T cells specific for any one pathogen means dependence on primary responses initiated in draining lymph nodes, often allowing time for serious infection to develop. These responses imprint effectors with the capacity to home to infected tissues; this process, combined with inflammatory signals, ensures the effective targeting of primary immunity. Upon vaccination or previous pathogen exposure, increased pathogen-specific T cell numbers together with altered migratory patterns of memory T cells can greatly improve immune efficacy, ensuring infections are prevented or at least remain subclinical. Until recently, memory T cell populations were considered to comprise central memory T cells (TCM), which are restricted to the secondary lymphoid tissues and blood, and effector memory T cells (TEM), which broadly migrate between peripheral tissues, the blood, and the spleen. Here we review evidence for these two memory populations, highlight a relatively new player, the tissue-resident memory T cell (TRM), and emphasize the potential differences between the migratory patterns of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. This new understanding raises important considerations for vaccine design and for the measurement of immune parameters critical to the control of infectious disease, autoimmunity, and cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
                Scand J Immunol
                Wiley-Blackwell
                03009475
                September 2014
                September 21 2014
                : 80
                : 3
                : 169-179
                10.1111/sji.12199
                © 2014

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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                Self URI (article page): http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/sji.12199

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