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      Nivolumab versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma

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          Abstract

          Nivolumab, a programmed death 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitor, was associated with encouraging overall survival in uncontrolled studies involving previously treated patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma. This randomized, open-label, phase 3 study compared nivolumab with everolimus in patients with renal-cell carcinoma who had received previous treatment.

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          Most cited references 13

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          THE USE OF CONFIDENCE OR FIDUCIAL LIMITS ILLUSTRATED IN THE CASE OF THE BINOMIAL

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            Costimulatory B7-H1 in renal cell carcinoma patients: Indicator of tumor aggressiveness and potential therapeutic target.

            Expression of B7-H1, a costimulating glycoprotein in the B7 family, is normally restricted to macrophage-lineage cells, providing a potential costimulatory signal source for regulation of T cell activation. In contrast, aberrant expression of B7-H1 by tumor cells has been implicated in impairment of T cell function and survival, resulting in defective host antitumoral immunity. The relationship between tumor-associated B7-H1 and clinical cancer progression is unknown. Herein, we report B7-H1 expression by both renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumors of the kidney and RCC tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. In addition, our analysis of 196 clinical specimens reveals that patients harboring high intratumoral expression levels of B7-H1, contributed by tumor cells alone, lymphocytes alone, or tumor and/or lymphocytes combined, exhibit aggressive tumors and are at markedly increased risk of death from RCC. In fact, patients with high tumor and/or lymphocyte B7-H1 levels are 4.5 times more likely to die from their cancer than patients exhibiting low levels of B7-H1 expression (risk ratio 4.53; 95% confidence interval 1.94-10.56; P < 0.001.) Thus, our study suggests a previously undescribed mechanism whereby RCC may impair host immunity to foster tumor progression. B7-H1 may prove useful as a prognostic variable for RCC patients both pre- and posttreatment. In addition, B7-H1 may represent a promising target to facilitate more favorable responses in patients who require immunotherapy for treatment of advanced RCC.
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              Axitinib versus sorafenib as second-line treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma: overall survival analysis and updated results from a randomised phase 3 trial.

              In a phase 3 trial comparing the efficacy and safety of axitinib versus sorafenib as second-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, patients given axitinib had a longer progression-free survival (PFS). Here, we report overall survival and updated efficacy, quality of life, and safety results. Eligible patients had clear cell metastatic renal cell carcinoma, progressive disease after one approved systemic treatment, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of 0-1. 723 patients were stratified by ECOG PS and previous treatment and randomly allocated (1:1) to receive axitinib (5 mg twice daily; n=361) or sorafenib (400 mg twice daily; n=362). The primary endpoint was PFS assessed by a masked, independent radiology review committee. We assessed patient-reported outcomes using validated questionnaires. Baseline characteristics and development of hypertension on treatment were studied as prognostic factors. Efficacy was assessed in the intention-to-treat population, and safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of the study drug. This ongoing trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00678392. Median overall survival was 20.1 months (95% CI 16.7-23.4) with axitinib and 19.2 months (17.5-22.3) with sorafenib (hazard ratio [HR] 0.969, 95% CI 0.800-1.174; one-sided p=0.3744). Median investigator-assessed PFS was 8.3 months (95% CI 6.7-9.2) with axitinib and 5·7 months (4.7-6.5) with sorafenib (HR 0.656, 95% CI 0.552-0.779; one-sided p<0.0001). Patient-reported outcomes scores were similar in the treatment groups at baseline, were maintained during treatment, but decreased at end-of-treatment. Common grade 3 or higher treatment-related adverse events were hypertension (60 [17%]), diarrhoea (40 [11%]), and fatigue (37 [10%]) in 359 axitinib-treated patients and hand-foot syndrome (61 [17%]), hypertension (43 [12%]), and diarrhoea (27 [8%]) in 355 sorafenib-treated patients. In a post-hoc 12-week landmark analysis, median overall survival was longer in patients with a diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or greater than in those with a diastolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg: 20.7 months (95% CI 18.4-24.6) versus 12.9 months (10.1-20.4) in the axitinib group (p=0.0116), and 20.2 months (17.1-32.0) versus 14.8 months (12.0-17.7) in the sorafenib group (one-sided p=0.0020). Although overall survival, a secondary endpoint for the study, did not differ between the two groups, investigator-assessed PFS remained longer in the axitinib group compared with the sorafenib group. These results establish axitinib as a second-line treatment option for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Pfizer Inc. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                November 05 2015
                November 05 2015
                : 373
                : 19
                : 1803-1813
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa1510665
                5719487
                26406148
                © 2015
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