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      The Intervention Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine on the Intestinal Flora and Its Metabolites in Glycolipid Metabolic Disorders

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          Abstract

          Metabolic syndrome (MS), which includes metabolic disorders such as protein disorder, glucose disorder, lipid disorder, and carbohydrate disorder, has been growing rapidly around the world. Glycolipid disorders are a main type of metabolic syndrome and are characterized by abdominal obesity and abnormal metabolic disorders of lipid, glucose, and carbohydrate utilization, which can cause cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Glycolipid disorders are closely related to intestinal flora and its metabolites. However, studies about the biological mechanisms of the intestinal flora and its metabolites with glycolipid disorders have not been clear. When glycolipid disorders are treated with drugs, a challenging problem is side effects. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and dietary supplements have fewer side effects to treat it. Numerous basic and clinical studies have confirmed that TCM decoctions, Chinese medicine monomers, or compounds can treat glycolipid disorders and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we reviewed the relationship between the intestinal flora and its metabolites in glycolipid metabolic disorders and the effect of TCM in treating glycolipid metabolic disorders through the intestinal flora and its metabolites. This review provides new perspectives and strategies for future glycolipid disorders research and treatment.

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          The microbiome and butyrate regulate energy metabolism and autophagy in the mammalian colon.

          The microbiome is being characterized by large-scale sequencing efforts, yet it is not known whether it regulates host metabolism in a general versus tissue-specific manner or which bacterial metabolites are important. Here, we demonstrate that microbiota have a strong effect on energy homeostasis in the colon compared to other tissues. This tissue specificity is due to colonocytes utilizing bacterially produced butyrate as their primary energy source. Colonocytes from germfree mice are in an energy-deprived state and exhibit decreased expression of enzymes that catalyze key steps in intermediary metabolism including the TCA cycle. Consequently, there is a marked decrease in NADH/NAD(+), oxidative phosphorylation, and ATP levels, which results in AMPK activation, p27(kip1) phosphorylation, and autophagy. When butyrate is added to germfree colonocytes, it rescues their deficit in mitochondrial respiration and prevents them from undergoing autophagy. The mechanism is due to butyrate acting as an energy source rather than as an HDAC inhibitor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Gut microbial metabolites in obesity, NAFLD and T2DM

            Evidence is accumulating that the gut microbiome is involved in the aetiology of obesity and obesity-related complications such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The gut microbiota is able to ferment indigestible carbohydrates (for example, dietary fibre), thereby yielding important metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids and succinate. Numerous animal studies and a handful of human studies suggest a beneficial role of these metabolites in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. Interestingly, the more distal colonic microbiota primarily ferments peptides and proteins, as availability of fermentable fibre, the major energy source for the microbiota, is limited here. This proteolytic fermentation yields mainly harmful products such as ammonia, phenols and branched-chain fatty acids, which might be detrimental for host gut and metabolic health. Therefore, a switch from proteolytic to saccharolytic fermentation could be of major interest for the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic diseases. This Review focuses on the role of products derived from microbial carbohydrate and protein fermentation in relation to obesity and obesity-associated insulin resistance, T2DM and NAFLD, and discusses the mechanisms involved.
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              Targeted disruption of the nuclear receptor FXR/BAR impairs bile acid and lipid homeostasis.

              Mice lacking the nuclear bile acid receptor FXR/BAR developed normally and were outwardly identical to wild-type littermates. FXR/BAR null mice were distinguished from wild-type mice by elevated serum bile acid, cholesterol, and triglycerides, increased hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides, and a proatherogenic serum lipoprotein profile. FXR/BAR null mice also had reduced bile acid pools and reduced fecal bile acid excretion due to decreased expression of the major hepatic canalicular bile acid transport protein. Bile acid repression and induction of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase and the ileal bile acid binding protein, respectively, did not occur in FXR/BAR null mice, establishing the regulatory role of FXR/BAR for the expression of these genes in vivo. These data demonstrate that FXR/BAR is critical for bile acid and lipid homeostasis by virtue of its role as an intracellular bile acid sensor.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                ECAM
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                Hindawi
                1741-427X
                1741-4288
                2019
                4 June 2019
                4 June 2019
                : 2019
                : 2958920
                Affiliations
                1Department of Endocrinology, Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100054, China
                2Shenzhen Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 518034, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Fatima Martel

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8988-0697
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9725-1946
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4125-5435
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3859-5244
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0362-7365
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9873-4154
                Article
                10.1155/2019/2958920
                6582858
                593f663f-6e7f-4314-ad80-4c118387ee3f
                Copyright © 2019 Sha Di et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 30 December 2018
                : 31 March 2019
                : 24 April 2019
                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81430097
                Funded by: China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences
                Award ID: ZZ10-021
                Categories
                Review Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine
                Complementary & Alternative medicine

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