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      Vascular endothelial dysfunction, a major mediator in diabetic cardiomyopathy

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      Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

      Springer Nature

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          Abstract

          Diabetes mellitus is currently a major public health problem. A common complication of diabetes is cardiac dysfunction, which is recognized as a microvascular disease that leads to morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. While ischemic events are commonly observed in diabetic patients, the risk for developing heart failure is also increased, independent of the severity of coronary artery disease and hypertension. This diabetes-associated clinical entity is considered a distinct disease process referred to as "diabetic cardiomyopathy". However, it is not clear how diabetes promotes cardiac dysfunction. Vascular endothelial dysfunction is thought to be one of the key risk factors. The impact of diabetes on the endothelium involves several alterations, including hyperglycemia, fatty acid oxidation, reduced nitric oxide (NO), oxidative stress, inflammatory activation, and altered barrier function. The current review provides an update on mechanisms that specifically target endothelial dysfunction, which may lead to diabetic cardiomyopathy.

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          Most cited references 82

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          Endothelial dysfunction - a major mediator of diabetic vascular disease.

          The vascular endothelium is a multifunctional organ and is critically involved in modulating vascular tone and structure. Endothelial cells produce a wide range of factors that also regulate cellular adhesion, thromboresistance, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and vessel wall inflammation. Thus, endothelial function is important for the homeostasis of the body and its dysfunction is associated with several pathophysiological conditions, including atherosclerosis, hypertension and diabetes. Patients with diabetes invariably show an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Therefore, understanding and treating endothelial dysfunction is a major focus in the prevention of vascular complications associated with all forms of diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes may point to new management strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in diabetes. This review will focus on the mechanisms and therapeutics that specifically target endothelial dysfunction in the context of a diabetic setting. Mechanisms including altered glucose metabolism, impaired insulin signaling, low-grade inflammatory state, and increased reactive oxygen species generation will be discussed. The importance of developing new pharmacological approaches that upregulate endothelium-derived nitric oxide synthesis and target key vascular ROS-producing enzymes will be highlighted and new strategies that might prove clinically relevant in preventing the development and/or retarding the progression of diabetes associated vascular complications. © 2013.
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            Diabetic cardiomyopathy: evidence, mechanisms, and therapeutic implications.

            The presence of a diabetic cardiomyopathy, independent of hypertension and coronary artery disease, is still controversial. This systematic review seeks to evaluate the evidence for the existence of this condition, to clarify the possible mechanisms responsible, and to consider possible therapeutic implications. The existence of a diabetic cardiomyopathy is supported by epidemiological findings showing the association of diabetes with heart failure; clinical studies confirming the association of diabetes with left ventricular dysfunction independent of hypertension, coronary artery disease, and other heart disease; and experimental evidence of myocardial structural and functional changes. The most important mechanisms of diabetic cardiomyopathy are metabolic disturbances (depletion of glucose transporter 4, increased free fatty acids, carnitine deficiency, changes in calcium homeostasis), myocardial fibrosis (association with increases in angiotensin II, IGF-I, and inflammatory cytokines), small vessel disease (microangiopathy, impaired coronary flow reserve, and endothelial dysfunction), cardiac autonomic neuropathy (denervation and alterations in myocardial catecholamine levels), and insulin resistance (hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin sensitivity). This review presents evidence that diabetes is associated with a cardiomyopathy, independent of comorbid conditions, and that metabolic disturbances, myocardial fibrosis, small vessel disease, cardiac autonomic neuropathy, and insulin resistance may all contribute to the development of diabetic heart disease.
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              Fatty acid carbon is essential for dNTP synthesis in endothelial cells

              The metabolism of endothelial cells (ECs) during vessel sprouting remains poorly studied. Here, we report that endothelial loss of CPT1a, a rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid oxidation (FAO), caused vascular sprouting defects due to impaired proliferation, not migration of ECs. Reduction of FAO in ECs did not cause energy depletion or disturb redox homeostasis, but impaired de novo nucleotide synthesis for DNA replication. Isotope labeling studies in control ECs showed that fatty acid carbons substantially replenished the Krebs cycle, and were incorporated into aspartate (a nucleotide precursor), uridine monophosphate (a precursor of pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates) and DNA. CPT1a silencing reduced these processes and depleted EC stores of aspartate and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. Acetate (metabolized to acetyl-CoA, thereby substituting for the depleted FAO-derived acetyl-CoA) or a nucleoside mix rescued the phenotype of CPT1a-silenced ECs. Finally, CPT1 blockade inhibited pathological ocular angiogenesis, suggesting a novel strategy for blocking angiogenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
                Acta Pharmacol Sin
                Springer Nature
                1671-4083
                1745-7254
                June 4 2018
                Article
                10.1038/s41401-018-0042-6
                6318313
                29867137
                59636d99-ed1a-4513-8752-3f39a500a5e0
                © 2018

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