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      Cardioprotective Effects of Qishenyiqi Mediated by Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockade and Enhancing Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2

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          Abstract

          The aim of this paper was to investigate whether the effects of QSYQ on CHD are associated with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). The formula groups were lavaged with QSYQ, using fosinopril sodium as a control. The level of RAAS components in the myocardial tissue was measured, respectively. The results showed that both QSYQ and fosinopril sodium can improve the ejection fraction in CHD and that QSYQ decreases the left ventricular end-systolic diameter and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, while fosinopril sodium has no effects on these parameters. Fosinopril sodium, as an ACE inhibitor, downregulated ACE expression and eventually reduced the tissue AngII concentration but had no effect on ACE2. Moreover, it had no effect on renin or AT2, while QSYQ significantly decreased the level of renin and expression of AngII in myocardial tissue. The results also revealed that QSYQ can act on both AT1 and AT2, thus, blocking the effect of AngII and increasing the level of ACE2. It also downregulated the levels of TGF- β and MMP-9, but it had no effect on ACE. This study showed that the ameliorative effects of QSYQ on CHD in rats had multiple targets associated with the inhibition of RAAS, thus, producing cardioprotective therapy effects.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Major causes of death among men and women in China.

          With China's rapid economic development, the disease burden may have changed in the country. We studied the major causes of death and modifiable risk factors in a nationally representative cohort of 169,871 men and women 40 years of age and older in China. Baseline data on the participants' demographic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle-related risk factors, blood pressure, and body weight were obtained in 1991 with the use of a standard protocol. The follow-up evaluation was conducted in 1999 and 2000, with a follow-up rate of 93.4 percent. We documented 20,033 deaths in 1,239,191 person-years of follow-up. The mortality from all causes was 1480.1 per 100,000 person-years among men and 1190.2 per 100,000 person-years among women. The five leading causes of death were malignant neoplasms (mortality, 374.1 per 100,000 person-years), diseases of the heart (319.1), cerebrovascular disease (310.5), accidents (54.0), and infectious diseases (50.5) among men and diseases of the heart (268.5), cerebrovascular disease (242.3), malignant neoplasms (214.1), pneumonia and influenza (45.9), and infectious diseases (35.3) among women. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk of death and the population attributable risk for preventable risk factors were as follows: hypertension, 1.48 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.44 to 1.53) and 11.7 percent, respectively; cigarette smoking, 1.23 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.18 to 1.27) and 7.9 percent; physical inactivity, 1.20 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.16 to 1.24) and 6.8 percent; and underweight (body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters] below 18.5), 1.47 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.42 to 1.53) and 5.2 percent. Vascular disease and cancer have become the leading causes of death among Chinese adults. Our findings suggest that control of hypertension, smoking cessation, increased physical activity, and improved nutrition should be important strategies for reducing the burden of premature death among adults in China. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            International union of pharmacology. XXIII. The angiotensin II receptors.

            The cardiovascular and other actions of angiotensin II (Ang II) are mediated by AT(1) and AT(2) receptors, which are seven transmembrane glycoproteins with 30% sequence similarity. Most species express a single autosomal AT(1) gene, but two related AT(1A) and AT(1B) receptor genes are expressed in rodents. AT(1) receptors are predominantly coupled to G(q/11), and signal through phospholipases A, C, D, inositol phosphates, calcium channels, and a variety of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases. Many AT(1)-induced growth responses are mediated by transactivation of growth factor receptors. The receptor binding sites for agonist and nonpeptide antagonist ligands have been defined. The latter compounds are as effective as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in cardiovascular diseases but are better tolerated. The AT(2) receptor is expressed at high density during fetal development. It is much less abundant in adult tissues and is up-regulated in pathological conditions. Its signaling pathways include serine and tyrosine phosphatases, phospholipase A(2), nitric oxide, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate. The AT(2) receptor counteracts several of the growth responses initiated by the AT(1) and growth factor receptors. The AT(4) receptor specifically binds Ang IV (Ang 3-8), and is located in brain and kidney. Its signaling mechanisms are unknown, but it influences local blood flow and is associated with cognitive processes and sensory and motor functions. Although AT(1) receptors mediate most of the known actions of Ang II, the AT(2) receptor contributes to the regulation of blood pressure and renal function. The development of specific nonpeptide receptor antagonists has led to major advances in the physiology, pharmacology, and therapy of the renin-angiotensin system.
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              Loss of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 accelerates maladaptive left ventricular remodeling in response to myocardial infarction.

              Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a monocarboxypeptidase that metabolizes Ang II into Ang 1-7, thereby functioning as a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system. We hypothesized that ACE2 deficiency may compromise the cardiac response to myocardial infarction (MI). In response to MI (induced by left anterior descending artery ligation), there was a persistent increase in ACE2 protein in the infarct zone in wild-type mice, whereas loss of ACE2 enhanced the susceptibility to MI, with increased mortality, infarct expansion, and adverse ventricular remodeling characterized by ventricular dilation and systolic dysfunction. In ACE2-deficient hearts, elevated myocardial levels of Ang II and decreased levels of Ang 1-7 in the infarct-related zone was associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species. ACE2 deficiency leads to increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP9 levels with MMP2 activation in the infarct and peri-infarct regions, as well as increased gelatinase activity leading to a disrupted extracellular matrix structure after MI. Loss of ACE2 also leads to increased neutrophilic infiltration in the infarct and peri-infarct regions, resulting in upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, interferon-gamma, interleukin-6, and the chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 signaling pathways. Treatment of Ace2(-)(/y)-MI mice with irbesartan, an AT1 receptor blocker, reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity, infarct size, MMP activation, and myocardial inflammation, ultimately resulting in improved post-MI ventricular function. We conclude that loss of ACE2 facilitates adverse post-MI ventricular remodeling by potentiation of Ang II effects by means of the AT1 receptors, and supplementing ACE2 can be a potential therapy for ischemic heart disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                ECAM
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1741-427X
                1741-4288
                2012
                13 November 2012
                13 November 2012
                : 2012
                Affiliations
                1Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Bei San Huan Dong Lu 11, Chao Yang District, Beijing 100029, China
                2State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Ching Liang Hsieh

                Article
                10.1155/2012/978127
                3526154
                23304234
                Copyright © 2012 Yong Wang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine

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