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      Metabolic implications of organelle–mitochondria communication

      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 1 , 2 , 3
      EMBO reports
      EMBO

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          Abstract

          Cellular organelles are not static but show dynamism—a property that is likely relevant for their function. In addition, they interact with other organelles in a highly dynamic manner. In this review, we analyze the proteins involved in the interaction between mitochondria and other cellular organelles, especially the endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets, and lysosomes. Recent results indicate that, on one hand, metabolic alterations perturb the interaction between mitochondria and other organelles, and, on the other hand, that deficiency in proteins involved in the tethering between mitochondria and the ER or in specific functions of the interaction leads to metabolic alterations in a variety of tissues. The interaction between organelles is an emerging field that will permit to identify key proteins, to delineate novel modulation pathways, and to elucidate their implications in human disease.

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          Most cited references150

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          Mitochondria supply membranes for autophagosome biogenesis during starvation.

          Starvation-induced autophagosomes engulf cytosol and/or organelles and deliver them to lysosomes for degradation, thereby resupplying depleted nutrients. Despite advances in understanding the molecular basis of this process, the membrane origin of autophagosomes remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that, in starved cells, the outer membrane of mitochondria participates in autophagosome biogenesis. The early autophagosomal marker, Atg5, transiently localizes to punctae on mitochondria, followed by the late autophagosomal marker, LC3. The tail-anchor of an outer mitochondrial membrane protein also labels autophagosomes and is sufficient to deliver another outer mitochondrial membrane protein, Fis1, to autophagosomes. The fluorescent lipid NBD-PS (converted to NBD-phosphotidylethanolamine in mitochondria) transfers from mitochondria to autophagosomes. Photobleaching reveals membranes of mitochondria and autophagosomes are transiently shared. Disruption of mitochondria/ER connections by mitofusin2 depletion dramatically impairs starvation-induced autophagy. Mitochondria thus play a central role in starvation-induced autophagy, contributing membrane to autophagosomes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            LC3 conjugation system in mammalian autophagy

            Autophagy is the bulk degradation of proteins and organelles, a process essential for cellular maintenance, cell viability, differentiation and development in mammals. Autophagy has significant associations with neurodegenerative diseases, cardiomyopathies, cancer, programmed cell death, and bacterial and viral infections. During autophagy, a cup-shaped structure, the preautophagosome, engulfs cytosolic components, including organelles, and closes, forming an autophagosome, which subsequently fuses with a lysosome, leading to the proteolytic degradation of internal components of the autophagosome by lysosomal lytic enzymes. During the formation of mammalian autophagosomes, two ubiquitylation-like modifications are required, Atg12-conjugation and LC3-modification. LC3 is an autophagosomal ortholog of yeast Atg8. A lipidated form of LC3, LC3-II, has been shown to be an autophagosomal marker in mammals, and has been used to study autophagy in neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases, tumorigenesis, and bacterial and viral infections. The other Atg8 homologues, GABARAP and GATE-16, are also modified by the same mechanism. In non-starved rats, the tissue distribution of LC3-II differs from those of the lipidated forms of GABARAP and GATE-16, GABARAP-II and GATE-16-II, suggesting that there is a functional divergence among these three modified proteins. Delipidation of LC3-II and GABARAP-II is mediated by hAtg4B. We review the molecular mechanism of LC3-modification, the crosstalk between LC3-modification and mammalian Atg12-conjugation, and the cycle of LC3-lipidation and delipidation mediated by hAtg4B, as well as recent findings concerning the other two Atg8 homologues, GABARAP and GATE-16. We also highlight recent findings regarding the pathobiology of LC3-modification, including its role in microbial infection, cancer and neuromuscular diseases.
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              A new pathway for mitochondrial quality control: mitochondrial-derived vesicles.

              The last decade has been marked by tremendous progress in our understanding of the cell biology of mitochondria, with the identification of molecules and mechanisms that regulate their fusion, fission, motility, and the architectural transitions within the inner membrane. More importantly, the manipulation of these machineries in tissues has provided links between mitochondrial dynamics and physiology. Indeed, just as the proteins required for fusion and fission were identified, they were quickly linked to both rare and common human diseases. This highlighted the critical importance of this emerging field to medicine, with new hopes of finding drugable targets for numerous pathologies, from neurodegenerative diseases to inflammation and cancer. In the midst of these exciting new discoveries, an unexpected new aspect of mitochondrial cell biology has been uncovered; the generation of small vesicular carriers that transport mitochondrial proteins and lipids to other intracellular organelles. These mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) were first found to transport a mitochondrial outer membrane protein MAPL to a subpopulation of peroxisomes. However, other MDVs did not target peroxisomes and instead fused with the late endosome, or multivesicular body. The Parkinson's disease-associated proteins Vps35, Parkin, and PINK1 are involved in the biogenesis of a subset of these MDVs, linking this novel trafficking pathway to human disease. In this review, we outline what has been learned about the mechanisms and functional importance of MDV transport and speculate on the greater impact of these pathways in cellular physiology. © 2014 The Authors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EMBO reports
                EMBO Rep
                EMBO
                1469-221X
                1469-3178
                August 14 2019
                August 14 2019
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST) Barcelona Spain
                [2 ]CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabolicas Asociadas Barcelona Spain
                [3 ]Departamento de Bioquimica i Biomedicina Molecular Facultat de Biologia Universitat de Barcelona Barcelona Spain
                [4 ]Nestle Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) Lausanne Switzerland
                [5 ]School of Life Sciences Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Lausanne Switzerland
                Article
                10.15252/embr.201947928
                6726909
                31418169
                5966a6ef-5cbc-48ad-8d83-0383f38a3966
                © 2019

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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