Blog
About

12
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Treatment of lung disease in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: a systematic review

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background

          Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a rare genetic condition predisposing individuals to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The treatment is generally extrapolated from COPD unrelated to AATD; however, most COPD trials exclude AATD patients; thus, this study sought to systematically review AATD-specific literature to assist evidence-based patient management.

          Methods

          Standard review methodology was used with meta-analysis and narrative synthesis (PROSPERO-CRD42015019354). Eligible studies were those of any treatment used in severe AATD. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were the primary focus; however, case series and uncontrolled studies were eligible. All studies had ≥10 participants receiving treatment or usual care, with baseline and follow-up data (>3 months). Risk of bias was assessed appropriately according to study methodology.

          Results

          In all, 7,296 studies were retrieved from searches; 52 trials with 5,632 participants met the inclusion criteria, of which 26 studies involved alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation and 17 concerned surgical treatments (largely transplantation). Studies were grouped into four management themes: COPD medical, COPD surgical, AATD specific, and other treatments. Computed tomography (CT) density, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide, health status, and exacerbation rates were frequently used as outcomes. Meta-analyses were only possible for RCTs of intravenous augmentation, which slowed progression of emphysema measured by CT density change, 0.79 g/L/year versus placebo ( P=0.002), and associated with a small increase in exacerbations 0.29/year ( P=0.02). Mortality following lung transplant was comparable between AATD- and non-AATD-related COPD. Surgical reduction of lung volume demonstrated inferior outcomes compared with non-AATD-related emphysema.

          Conclusion

          Intravenous augmentation remains the only disease-specific therapy in AATD and there is evidence that this slows decline in emphysema determined by CT density. There is paucity of data around other treatments in AATD. Treatments for usual COPD may not be as efficacious in AATD, and further studies may be required for this disease group.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 83

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Tiotropium versus salmeterol for the prevention of exacerbations of COPD.

          Treatment guidelines recommend the use of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators to alleviate symptoms and reduce the risk of exacerbations in patients with moderate-to-very-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but do not specify whether a long-acting anticholinergic drug or a β(2)-agonist is the preferred agent. We investigated whether the anticholinergic drug tiotropium is superior to the β(2)-agonist salmeterol in preventing exacerbations of COPD. In a 1-year, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group trial, we compared the effect of treatment with 18 μg of tiotropium once daily with that of 50 μg of salmeterol twice daily on the incidence of moderate or severe exacerbations in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD and a history of exacerbations in the preceding year. A total of 7376 patients were randomly assigned to and treated with tiotropium (3707 patients) or salmeterol (3669 patients). Tiotropium, as compared with salmeterol, increased the time to the first exacerbation (187 days vs. 145 days), with a 17% reduction in risk (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 0.90; P<0.001). Tiotropium also increased the time to the first severe exacerbation (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.85; P<0.001), reduced the annual number of moderate or severe exacerbations (0.64 vs. 0.72; rate ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.96; P=0.002), and reduced the annual number of severe exacerbations (0.09 vs. 0.13; rate ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.82; P<0.001). Overall, the incidence of serious adverse events and of adverse events leading to the discontinuation of treatment was similar in the two study groups. There were 64 deaths (1.7%) in the tiotropium group and 78 (2.1%) in the salmeterol group. These results show that, in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD, tiotropium is more effective than salmeterol in preventing exacerbations. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00563381.).
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Intravenous augmentation treatment and lung density in severe α1 antitrypsin deficiency (RAPID): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

            The efficacy of α1 proteinase inhibitor (A1PI) augmentation treatment for α1 antitrypsin deficiency has not been substantiated by a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. CT-measured lung density is a more sensitive measure of disease progression in α1 antitrypsin deficiency emphysema than spirometry is, so we aimed to assess the efficacy of augmentation treatment with this measure.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Replacement therapy for alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency associated with emphysema.

              In patients with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, the development of emphysema is believed to be caused by the unchecked action of proteases on lung tissue. We evaluated the feasibility, safety, and biochemical efficacy of intermittent infusions of alpha 1-antitrypsin in the treatment of patients with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. Twenty-one patients were given 60 mg of active plasma-derived alpha 1-antitrypsin per kilogram of body weight, once a week for up to six months. After a steady state had been reached, the group had trough serum levels of alpha 1-antitrypsin of 126 +/- 1 mg per deciliter as compared with 30 +/- 1 mg per deciliter before treatment, and serum anti-neutrophil elastase capacities of 13.3 +/- 0.1 microM as compared with 5.4 +/- 0.1 microM. The alpha 1-antitrypsin level in the epithelial-lining fluid of the lungs was 0.46 +/- 0.16 microM before treatment, and the anti-neutrophil elastase capacity was 0.81 +/- 0.13 microM. Six days after infusion, alpha 1-antitrypsin levels (1.89 +/- 0.17 microM) and anti-neutrophil elastase capacities (1.65 +/- 0.13 microM) in the lining fluid were significantly increased (P less than 0.0001). Because of the chronicity of the disorder and the lack of sensitive measures of lung destruction, the clinical efficacy of this therapy could not be studied rigorously. No changes in lung function were observed in our patients over six months of treatment. The only important adverse reactions to the 507 infusions were four episodes of self-limited fever. This study demonstrates that infusions of alpha 1-antitrypsin derived from plasma are safe and can reverse the biochemical abnormalities in serum and lung fluid that characterize this disorder. Together with lifetime avoidance of cigarette smoking, replacement therapy with alpha 1-antitrypsin may be a logical approach to long-term medical treatment.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2017
                02 May 2017
                : 12
                : 1295-1308
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Therapy Services, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK
                [2 ]Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
                [3 ]Division of Primary Care, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
                [4 ]Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
                [5 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK
                [6 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Alice M Turner, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, B9 5SS, UK, Tel +44 121 371 3885, Email a.m.turner@ 123456bham.ac.uk
                Article
                copd-12-1295
                10.2147/COPD.S130440
                5422329
                © 2017 Edgar et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Review

                Respiratory medicine

                transplantation, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, emphysema, treatment

                Comments

                Comment on this article