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      Colonic Perforation Secondary to Gallstone Impaction in the Sigmoid Colon

      Case Reports in Surgery

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          Gallstone sigmoid ileus is a very rare manifestation of large bowel obstruction. Mainly, three conditions predispose the manifestation of the entity; in particular, an episode of cholecystitis causing cholecysto-colonic fistula; a large gallstone; and narrowing of the sigmoid colon secondary to diverticular disease or malignancy. Case Report. An 82-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a one-week history of severe constipation, tachypnoea, tachycardia, hypotension, and high lactate. Physical examination demonstrated cyanosed upper and lower extremities and palpation of the abdomen revealed signs of peritonism, abdominal distention, and guarding. Computerized tomography scan demonstrated perforation of the hollow viscus organ secondary to impaction of the large gallstone in the sigmoid colon. Laparotomy revealed sigmoid perforation and widespread feculent peritonitis. The patient underwent Hartmann's procedure. After the intervention gave concerns regarding the patient's haemodynamic stability, he was transferred to the intensive care unit. The patient passed away on the third postoperative day due to complications secondary to haemodynamic instability.


          Patients with early diagnosed uncomplicated sigmoid gallstone ileus can be managed with endoscopic mechanical lithotripsy. In case of failure, open or laparoscopic enterolithotomy can be applied. However, when patients present with complications, surgery should not be delayed. In our case, Hartmann's procedure was an absolute indication due to sigmoid perforation and widespread feculent peritonitis.

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          Gallstone ileus: a review of 1001 reported cases.

          Although rare in the general population, gallstone ileus accounts for 25 per cent of nonstrangulated small bowel obstructions in those over the age of 65. While mortality has declined over the years, it remains high at 15-18 per cent. This is largely due to the patient population, with comorbid medical conditions contributing to mortality. The proper extent of surgery continues to be actively debated. Proponents of minimal surgery feel that relief of the obstruction is all that is required. Others argue that the gallbladder and biliary-enteric fistula must be removed to prevent future recurrence (a one-stage procedure). The one-stage procedure carries an associated mortality of 16.9 per cent, compared to 11.7 per cent for simple enterolithotomy. Morbidity after enterolithotomy is low. The recurrence rate of gallstone ileus was less than 5 per cent, and only 10 per cent of patients required reoperation for continued symptoms related to the biliary tract. Simple enterolithotomy is both safe and effective in dealing with a patient with gallstone ileus.
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            Gallstone ileus, clinical presentation, diagnostic and treatment approach.

            Gallstone ileus is a mechanical intestinal obstruction due to gallstone impaction within the gastrointestinal tract. Less than 1% of cases of intestinal obstruction are derived from this etiology. The symptoms and signs of gallstone ileus are mostly nonspecific. This entity has been observed with a higher frequency among the elderly, the majority of which have concomitant medical illness. Cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic diseases should be considered as they may affect the prognosis. Surgical relief of gastrointestinal obstruction remains the mainstay of operative treatment. The current surgical procedures are: (1) simple enterolithotomy; (2) enterolithotomy, cholecystectomy and fistula closure (one-stage procedure); and (3) enterolithotomy with cholecystectomy performed later (two-stage procedure). Bowel resection is necessary in certain cases after enterolithotomy is performed. Large prospective laparoscopic and endoscopic trials are expected.
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              Gallstone ileus


                Author and article information

                Case Rep Surg
                Case Rep Surg
                Case Reports in Surgery
                20 July 2023
                : 2023
                : 9986665
                Department of Surgery, Colchester General Hospital, Turner Road, Colchester CO4 5JL, UK
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Eric Bergeron

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Paschalis Gavriilidis and Abhilash Paily.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 17 April 2023
                : 28 May 2023
                : 8 July 2023
                Case Report



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