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      Antemortem and postmortem examinations of the cattle calf naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

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          A male cattle calf was detected as subclinically and naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) by a series of antemortem and postmortem tests. The MAP infection was identified by strong antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) response by a commercial ELISA kit and an intradermal Johnin test, respectively, in the initial antemortem examination. The antemortem status of the calf was further confirmed by MAP-specific interferon gamma (IFN-γ) response. For detection of IFN-γ response, MAP-specific IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs): (a) immuno capture ELISA (IC-ELISA) and (b) ELISPOT was employed. In addition, the presence of intracellular cytokine IFN- γ was detected by flow cytometry. For all cytokine assays, MAP-specific recombinant antigens HSP65 and 35 kDa were employed to overcome the poor sensitivity and specificity resulting from the use of Johnin, the crude protein purified derivative of MAP. Postmortem examination of the MAP-infected/suspected cattle calf did not reveal any pathognomonic gross lesions in the gastro-intestinal tract. Histopathological examination of multiple organs showed the presence of epithelioid cells/macrophages and edematous lesions in the mesenteric lymph nodes suggestive of MAP; however, no granulomas were observed in the intestinal tract. The necropsy samples of rectum and mesenteric lymph nodes were positive for isolation of MAP by culture in the BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 system, and acid fast bacilli were demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy confirming the infection. Due to differential and complex expression patterns of MAP antigens reported in literature, a combination of assays such as those based on IGRAs and antibody detection is essential. Therefore, the current experimental evidence confirms the efficacy of the approach adopted. However, further studies will be needed to understand the optimal combination MAP-specific antigens for use in IGRAs or antibody assays that can be used for detecting MAP infection in every stage of the disease.

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          Disseminated tuberculosis in interferon gamma gene-disrupted mice

          The expression of protective immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice is mediated by T lymphocytes that secrete cytokines. These molecules then mediate a variety of roles, including the activation of parasitized host macrophages, and the recruitment of other mononuclear phagocytes to the site of the infection in order to initiate granuloma formation. Among these cytokines, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) is believed to play a key role is these events. In confirmation of this hypothesis, we show in this study that mice in which the IFN-gamma gene has been disrupted were unable to contain or control a normally sublethal dose of M. tuberculosis, delivered either intravenously or aerogenically. In such mice, a progressive and widespread tissue destruction and necrosis, associated with very high numbers of acid- fast bacilli, was observed. In contrast, despite the lack of protective immunity, some DTH-like reactivity could still be elicited. These data, therefore, indicate that although IFN-gamma may not be needed for DTH expression, it plays a pivotal and essential role in protective cellular immunity to tuberculosis infection.
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            Herd-level economic losses associated with Johne's disease on US dairy operations.

            Johne's disease ('paratuberculosis') is a chronic, infectious, wasting disease that affects dairy cattle. Estimation of its impact on herd productivity and corresponding economic loss on US dairy operations was part of the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) 1996 national dairy study. Johne's-positive herds experience an economic loss of almost US\(100 per cow when compared to Johne's-negative herds due to reduced milk production and increased cow-replacement costs. For Johne's-positive herds that reported at least 10% of their cull cows as having clinical signs consistent with Johne's disease, economic losses were over US\) 200 per cow. These high-prevalence herds experienced reduced milk production of over 700 kg per cow, culled more cows but had lower cull-cow revenues, and had greater cow mortality than Johne's-negative herds. Averaged across all herds, Johne's disease costs the US dairy industry, in reduced productivity, US\(22 to US\) 27 per cow or US\(200 to US\) 250 million annually.
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              The pathology and pathogenesis of paratuberculosis in ruminants and other species.


                Author and article information

                Role: Advisor
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                1 December 2013
                : 3
                : 4
                : 241-251
                [ 1 ] Research and Development Centre, Indian Immunologicals Limited, Gachibowli, Hyderabad, 500 032, India
                [ 2 ] Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjunanagar, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, 522510, India
                [ 3 ] National Institute of Nutrition, Jamai-Osmania P.O., Hyderabad, India
                [ 4 ] National Dairy Development Board, 33, Telecom Nagar, Gachibowli, Hyderabad, 500032, India
                Author notes
                Case Study

                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                MAP culture,paratuberculosis,MAP diagnosis,bovine IFN-γ,ELISA,ELISPOT,flow cytometry,histopathology


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