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      STING an Endoplasmic Reticulum Adaptor that Facilitates Innate Immune Signaling

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          Abstract

          We report here the identification, following expression cloning, of a molecule, STING (STimulator of INterferon Genes) that regulates innate immune signaling processes. STING, comprising 5 putative transmembrane (TM) regions, predominantly resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is able to activate both NF-κB and IRF3 transcription pathways to induce type I IFN and exert a potent anti-viral state following expression. In contrast, loss of STING rendered murine embryonic fibroblasts (STING −/−MEFs) extremely susceptible to negative-stranded virus infection, including vesicular stomatitis virus, VSV. Further, STING ablation abrogated the ability of intracellular B-form DNA, as well as members of the herpes virus family, to induce IFNβ, but did not significantly affect the Toll-like receptor (TLR pathway). Yeast-two hybrid and co-immunprecipitation studies indicated that STING interacts with RIG-I and with Ssr2/TRAPβ, a member of the translocon-associated protein (TRAP) complex required for protein translocation across the ER membrane following translation[ 1, 2]. RNAi ablation of TRAPβ and translocon adaptor Sec61β was subsequently found to inhibit STING’s ability to stimulate IFNβ. Thus, aside from identifying a novel regulator of innate immune signaling, this data implicates for the first time a potential role for the translocon in innate signaling pathways activated by select viruses as well as intracellular DNA.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses.

          The innate immune system senses viral infection by recognizing a variety of viral components (including double-stranded (ds)RNA) and triggers antiviral responses. The cytoplasmic helicase proteins RIG-I (retinoic-acid-inducible protein I, also known as Ddx58) and MDA5 (melanoma-differentiation-associated gene 5, also known as Ifih1 or Helicard) have been implicated in viral dsRNA recognition. In vitro studies suggest that both RIG-I and MDA5 detect RNA viruses and polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a synthetic dsRNA analogue. Although a critical role for RIG-I in the recognition of several RNA viruses has been clarified, the functional role of MDA5 and the relationship between these dsRNA detectors in vivo are yet to be determined. Here we use mice deficient in MDA5 (MDA5-/-) to show that MDA5 and RIG-I recognize different types of dsRNAs: MDA5 recognizes poly(I:C), and RIG-I detects in vitro transcribed dsRNAs. RNA viruses are also differentially recognized by RIG-I and MDA5. We find that RIG-I is essential for the production of interferons in response to RNA viruses including paramyxoviruses, influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus, whereas MDA5 is critical for picornavirus detection. Furthermore, RIG-I-/- and MDA5-/- mice are highly susceptible to infection with these respective RNA viruses compared to control mice. Together, our data show that RIG-I and MDA5 distinguish different RNA viruses and are critical for host antiviral responses.
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            The RNA helicase RIG-I has an essential function in double-stranded RNA-induced innate antiviral responses.

            Intracellular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a chief sign of replication for many viruses. Host mechanisms detect the dsRNA and initiate antiviral responses. In this report, we identify retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I), which encodes a DExD/H box RNA helicase that contains a caspase recruitment domain, as an essential regulator for dsRNA-induced signaling, as assessed by functional screening and assays. A helicase domain with intact ATPase activity was responsible for the dsRNA-mediated signaling. The caspase recruitment domain transmitted 'downstream' signals, resulting in the activation of transcription factors NF-kappaB and IRF-3. Subsequent gene activation by these factors induced antiviral functions, including type I interferon production. Thus, RIG-I is key in the detection and subsequent eradication of the replicating viral genomes.
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              Identification and characterization of MAVS, a mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein that activates NF-kappaB and IRF 3.

              Viral infection triggers host innate immune responses through activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and IRF 3, which coordinately regulate the expression of type-I interferons such as interferon-beta (IFN-beta). Herein, we report the identification of a novel protein termed MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling), which mediates the activation of NF-kappaB and IRF 3 in response to viral infection. Silencing of MAVS expression through RNA interference abolishes the activation of NF-kappaB and IRF 3 by viruses, thereby permitting viral replication. Conversely, overexpression of MAVS induces the expression of IFN-beta through activation of NF-kappaB and IRF 3, thus boosting antiviral immunity. Epistasis experiments show that MAVS is required for the phosphorylation of IRF 3 and IkappaB and functions downstream of RIG-I, an intracellular receptor for viral RNA. MAVS contains an N-terminal CARD-like domain and a C-terminal transmembrane domain, both of which are essential for MAVS signaling. The transmembrane domain targets MAVS to the mitochondria, implicating a new role of mitochondria in innate immunity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                0410462
                6011
                Nature
                Nature
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                23 March 2009
                24 August 2008
                2 October 2008
                12 January 2010
                : 455
                : 7213
                : 674-678
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine and Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami Florida, 33136
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Glen N. Barber PhD, Professor, Rm 511 Papanicolaou Building, 1550 NW 10 th Ave [M710], University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, Tel: 305 243 5914, Fax: 305 243 5885, gbarber@ 123456med.miami.edu
                Article
                nihpa67292
                10.1038/nature07317
                2804933
                18724357
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Extramural Activities : NIAID
                Award ID: R01 AI079336-01 ||AI
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