With the economic growth and increasing requirement of indoor thermal comfort, the load of building sector presents a greater variability.This paper aims at analyzing the energy consumption characteristics and influencing factors of the residential heat pump system. Firstly, we selected residential households as investigated objective in Kitakyushu, Japan, and compared the energy saving performances of heat supply systems between heat pump and natural gas boiler. The results were based on real measured residential load during winter period, and calculated the cost saving performance of residential heat pump system compared with traditional natural gas boiler. We also did a survey of residential occupation behavior for the 12 selected residential customers. The result indicated that there was low relationship between power consumption and occupation hours, and the number of family members had a significant impact on the power consumption. The results indicate that residential heat pump system presented promising energy saving and cost reduction potential.