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      The Activity Demands and Physiological Responses Encountered During Basketball Match-Play: A Systematic Review

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          Abstract

          Basketball is a popular, court-based team sport that has been extensively studied over the last decade.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Physical and metabolic demands of training and match-play in the elite football player.

          In soccer, the players perform intermittent work. Despite the players performing low-intensity activities for more than 70% of the game, heart rate and body temperature measurements suggest that the average oxygen uptake for elite soccer players is around 70% of maximum (VO(2max). This may be partly explained by the 150 - 250 brief intense actions a top-class player performs during a game, which also indicates that the rates of creatine phosphate (CP) utilization and glycolysis are frequently high during a game. Muscle glycogen is probably the most important substrate for energy production, and fatigue towards the end of a game may be related to depletion of glycogen in some muscle fibres. Blood free-fatty acids (FFAs) increase progressively during a game, partly compensating for the progressive lowering of muscle glycogen. Fatigue also occurs temporarily during matches, but it is still unclear what causes the reduced ability to perform maximally. There are major individual differences in the physical demands of players during a game related to physical capacity and tactical role in the team. These differences should be taken into account when planning the training and nutritional strategies of top-class players, who require a significant energy intake during a week.
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            Time-motion analysis and physiological data of elite under-19-year-old basketball players during competition.

            The physical demands of modern basketball were assessed by investigating 38 elite under-19-year-old basketball players during competition. Computerised time-motion analyses were performed on 18 players of various positions. Heart rate was recorded continuously for all subjects. Blood was sampled before the start of each match, at half time and at full time to determine lactate concentration. Players spent 8.8% (1%), 5.3% (0.8%) and 2.1% (0.3%) of live time in high "specific movements", sprinting and jumping, respectively. Centres spent significantly lower live time competing in high-intensity activities than guards (14.7% (1%) v 17.1% (1.2%); p<0.01) and forwards (16.6% (0.8%); p<0.05). The mean (SD) heart rate during total time was 171 (4) beats/min, with a significant difference (p<0.01) between guards and centres. Mean (SD) plasma lactate concentration was 5.49 (1.24) mmol/l, with concentrations at half time (6.05 (1.27) mmol/l) being significantly (p<0.001) higher than those at full time (4.94 (1.46) mmol/l). The changes to the rules of basketball have slightly increased the cardiac efforts involved during competition. The game intensity may differ according to the playing position, being greatest in guards.
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              Muscle and blood metabolites during a soccer game: implications for sprint performance.

              To examine muscle and blood metabolites during soccer match play and relate it to possible changes in sprint performance. Thirty-one Danish fourth division players took part in three friendly games. Blood samples were collected frequently during the game, and muscle biopsies were taken before and after the game as well as immediately after an intense period in each half. The players performed five 30-m sprints interspersed by 25-s recovery periods before the game and immediately after each half (N=11) or after an intense exercise period in each half (N=20). Muscle lactate was 15.9+/-1.9 and 16.9+/-2.3 mmol.kg d.w. during the first and second halves, respectively, with blood lactate being 6.0+/-0.4 and 5.0+/-0.4 mM, respectively. Muscle lactate was not correlated with blood lactate (r=0.06-0.25, P>0.05). Muscle glycogen decreased (P<0.05) from 449+/-23 to 255+/-22 mmol.kg d.w. during the game, with 47+/-7% of the muscle fibers being completely or almost empty of glycogen after the game. Blood glucose remained elevated during the game, whereas plasma FFA increased (P<0.05) from 0.45+/-0.05 to 1.37+/-0.23 mM. Mean sprint time was unaltered after the first half, but longer (P<0.05) after the game (2.8+/-0.7%) as well as after intense periods in the first (1.6+/-0.6%) and second halves (3.6+/-0.5%). The decline in sprint performance during the game was not correlated with muscle lactate, muscle pH, or total glycogen content. Sprint performance is reduced both temporarily during a game and at the end of a soccer game. The latter finding may be explained by low glycogen levels in individual muscle fibers. Blood lactate is a poor indicator of muscle lactate during soccer match play.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sports Medicine
                Sports Med
                Springer Nature
                0112-1642
                1179-2035
                January 2018
                October 16 2017
                January 2018
                : 48
                : 1
                : 111-135
                Article
                10.1007/s40279-017-0794-z
                29039018
                © 2018

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