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      Psychometric Testing of Three Chinese Online-Related Addictive Behavior Instruments among Hong Kong University Students

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          A ‘components’ model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework

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            The relationship between addictive use of social media and video games and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

            Over the last decade, research into "addictive technological behaviors" has substantially increased. Research has also demonstrated strong associations between addictive use of technology and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 23,533 adults (mean age 35.8 years, ranging from 16 to 88 years) participated in an online cross-sectional survey examining whether demographic variables, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, and depression could explain variance in addictive use (i.e., compulsive and excessive use associated with negative outcomes) of two types of modern online technologies: social media and video games. Correlations between symptoms of addictive technology use and mental disorder symptoms were all positive and significant, including the weak interrelationship between the two addictive technological behaviors. Age appeared to be inversely related to the addictive use of these technologies. Being male was significantly associated with addictive use of video games, whereas being female was significantly associated with addictive use of social media. Being single was positively related to both addictive social networking and video gaming. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that demographic factors explained between 11 and 12% of the variance in addictive technology use. The mental health variables explained between 7 and 15% of the variance. The study significantly adds to our understanding of mental health symptoms and their role in addictive use of modern technology, and suggests that the concept of Internet use disorder (i.e., "Internet addiction") as a unified construct is not warranted.
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              Psychiatric comorbidity assessed in Korean children and adolescents who screen positive for Internet addiction.

              This study aimed to evaluate clinical comorbidity in children and adolescents with Internet addiction by using structured interview. The study was performed in 2 stages. We screened for the presence of Internet addiction among 455 children (mean +/- SD age = 11.0 +/- 0.9 years) and 836 adolescents (mean +/- SD age = 15.8 +/- 0.8 years) using Young's Internet Addiction Scale. These subjects also completed a measure of psychopathology for comparison between addicted and nonaddicted subjects. Sixty-three children (13.8%) and 170 adolescents (20.3%) screened positive for Internet addiction. Of these, 12 children (male, N = 9; female, N = 3) and 12 adolescents (male, N = 11; female, N = 1) were randomly selected for evaluation of current psychiatric diagnoses. Structured interviews used were K-SADS-PL-K for children and SCID-IV for adolescents. Data were collected and interviews were conducted from August 2003 through October 2004. In the child group, 7 were diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) not otherwise specified including those with subthreshold levels. Mean DuPaul's ADHD Rating Scale scores were more than 20% higher than the mean in Korean children for 6 subjects. In the adolescent group, 3 subjects had major depressive disorder, 1 had schizophrenia, and 1 had obsessive-compulsive disorder. By structured interview, we found that Internet-addicted subjects had various comorbid psychiatric disorders. The most closely related comorbidities differ with age. Though we can not conclude that Internet addiction is a cause or consequence of these disorders, clinicians must consider the possibility of age-specific comorbid psychiatric disorders in cases of Internet addiction.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Psychiatric Quarterly
                Psychiatr Q
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0033-2720
                1573-6709
                March 2019
                October 16 2018
                March 2019
                : 90
                : 1
                : 117-128
                Article
                10.1007/s11126-018-9610-7
                © 2019

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