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      Ionizing radiation reduces ADAM10 expression in brain microvascular endothelial cells undergoing stress-induced senescence

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          Cellular senescence is associated with aging and is considered a potential contributor to age-associated neurodegenerative disease. Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing premature neurovascular degeneration and dementia but also induces premature senescence. As cells of the cerebrovascular endothelium are particularly susceptible to radiation and play an important role in brain homeostasis, we investigated radiation-induced senescence in brain microvascular endothelial cells (EC). Using biotinylation to label surface proteins, streptavidin enrichment and proteomic analysis, we analyzed the surface proteome of stress-induced senescent EC in culture. An array of both recognized and novel senescence-associated proteins were identified. Most notably, we identified and validated the novel radiation-stimulated down-regulation of the protease, a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10). ADAM10 is an important modulator of amyloid beta protein production, accumulation of which is central to the pathologies of Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Concurrently, we identified and validated increased surface expression of ADAM10 proteolytic targets with roles in neural proliferation and survival, inflammation and immune activation (L1CAM, NEO1, NEST, TLR2, DDX58). ADAM10 may be a key molecule linking radiation, senescence and endothelial dysfunction with increased risk of premature neurodegenerative diseases normally associated with aging.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is a critical downstream target of p53 in the induction of replicative senescence.

          p53 limits the proliferation of primary diploid fibroblasts by inducing a state of growth arrest named replicative senescence - a process which protects against oncogenic transformation and requires integrity of the p53 tumour suppressor pathway. However, little is known about the downstream target genes of p53 in this growth-limiting response. Here, we report that suppression of the p53 target gene encoding plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) by RNA interference (RNAi) leads to escape from replicative senescence both in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts and primary human BJ fibroblasts. PAI-1 knockdown results in sustained activation of the PI(3)K-PKB-GSK3beta pathway and nuclear retention of cyclin D1, consistent with a role for PAI-1 in regulating growth factor signalling. In agreement with this, we find that the PI(3)K-PKB-GSK3beta-cyclin D1 pathway is also causally involved in cellular senescence. Conversely, ectopic expression of PAI-1 in proliferating p53-deficient murine or human fibroblasts induces a phenotype displaying all the hallmarks of replicative senescence. Our data indicate that PAI-1 is not merely a marker of senescence, but is both necessary and sufficient for the induction of replicative senescence downstream of p53.
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            Cellular and molecular mechanisms of stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) of human diploid fibroblasts and melanocytes.

            Replicative senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) or melanocytes is caused by the exhaustion of their proliferative potential. Stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) occurs after many different sublethal stresses including H(2)O(2), hyperoxia, or tert-butylhydroperoxide. Cells in replicative senescence share common features with cells in SIPS: morphology, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, cell cycle regulation, gene expression and telomere shortening. Telomere shortening is attributed to the accumulation of DNA single-strand breaks induced by oxidative damage. SIPS could be a mechanism of accumulation of senescent-like cells in vivo. Melanocytes exposed to sublethal doses of UVB undergo SIPS. Melanocytes from dark- and light- skinned populations display differences in their cell cycle regulation. Delayed SIPS occurs in melanocytes from light-skinned populations since a reduced association of p16(Ink-4a) with CDK4 and reduced phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein are observed. The role of reactive oxygen species in melanocyte SIPS is unclear. Both replicative senescence and SIPS are dependent on two major pathways. One is triggered by DNA damage, telomere damage and/or shortening and involves the activation of the p53 and p21(waf-1) proteins. The second pathway results in the accumulation of p16(Ink-4a) with the MAP kinase signalling pathway as possible intermediate. These data corroborate the thermodynamical theory of ageing, according to which the exposure of cells to sublethal stresses of various natures can trigger SIPS, with possible modulations of this process by bioenergetics.
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              A disintegrin-metalloproteinase prevents amyloid plaque formation and hippocampal defects in an Alzheimer disease mouse model.

              Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by excessive deposition of amyloid beta-peptides (A beta peptides) in the brain. In the nonamyloidogenic pathway, the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is cleaved by the alpha-secretase within the A beta peptide sequence. Proteinases of the ADAM family (adisintegrin and metalloproteinase) are the main candidates as physiologically relevant alpha-secretases, but early lethality of knockout animals prevented a detailed analysis in neuronal cells. To overcome this restriction, we have generated transgenic mice that overexpress either ADAM10 or a catalytically inactive ADAM10 mutant. In this report we show that a moderate neuronal overexpression of ADAM10 in mice transgenic for human APP([V717I]) increased the secretion of the neurotrophic soluble alpha-secretase-released N-terminal APP domain (APPs alpha), reduced the formation of A beta peptides, and prevented their deposition in plaques. Functionally, impaired long-term potentiation and cognitive deficits were alleviated. Expression of mutant catalytically inactive ADAM10 led to an enhancement of the number and size of amyloid plaques in the brains of double-transgenic mice. The results provide the first in vivo evidence for a proteinase of the ADAM family as an alpha-secretase of APP, reveal activation of ADAM10 as a promising therapeutic target, and support the hypothesis that a decrease in alpha-secretase activity contributes to the development of AD.

                Author and article information

                Aging (Albany NY)
                Aging (Albany NY)
                Aging (Albany NY)
                Impact Journals LLC
                April 2017
                17 April 2017
                : 9
                : 4
                : 1248-1262
                1 Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, 2109, Australia
                2 Australian Proteome Analysis Facility, Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, 2109, Australia
                3 Vascular Biology Program, Centenary Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, 2042, Australia
                4 Genesis Cancer Care, Macquarie University Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, 2109, Australia
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Lucinda McRobb; lucinda.mcrobb@ 123456mq.edu.au
                Copyright: © 2017 McRobb et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

                Research Paper

                Cell biology

                endothelial cells, senescence, ionizing radiation, adam10, biotinylation


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