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      Antidiabetic activity of the ethyl acetate fraction of Ficus lutea (Moraceae) leaf extract: comparison of an in vitro assay with an in vivo obese mouse model

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          Ficus lutea crude acetone leaf extracts were previously shown to stimulate glucose uptake and insulin secretion of established cells and, inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities.


          For this study, F. lutea acetone extracts were subjected to solvent-solvent fractionation to yield fractions with differing polarities (hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water) in an attempt to obtain a more potent fraction with in vitro and probably in vivo activity.


          Among these fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total polyphenol content (100.5 ± 1.6 mg GAE/g dried extract) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (126.8 ± 30.6 μg/ml). It also stimulated the highest glucose uptake of C2C12 muscle cells and decreased extracellular glucose concentration of H-4-II-E liver cells with low cytotoxic activity. The ethyl acetate fraction (10.88 ± 0.55 μg/L at 250 μg/ml) enhanced insulin secretion in RIN-m5F pancreatic β-cells to the same degree as the positive control glibenclamide (11.09 ± 0.07 μg/L at 1μM). While fractionation increased α-glucosidase inhibition and glucose uptake of cells, in the ethyl acetate fraction, the α-amylase inhibition and insulin secretion decreased. The weight reducing and glucose control potential of the ethyl acetate fraction in an obese mouse model, important factors in the amelioration of type II diabetes was determined. The extract had no statistical significant weight reducing activity.


          A major finding was the decrease in the area under the curve of the glucose concentration over time in animals that were treated with both a change in diet and with the plant extract. This is linked to increased glucose uptake within the cells, the most likely mechanism is either an increased insulin response or increased insulin secretion.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030.

          The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people of all ages with diabetes for years 2000 and 2030. Data on diabetes prevalence by age and sex from a limited number of countries were extrapolated to all 191 World Health Organization member states and applied to United Nations' population estimates for 2000 and 2030. Urban and rural populations were considered separately for developing countries. The prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. The urban population in developing countries is projected to double between 2000 and 2030. The most important demographic change to diabetes prevalence across the world appears to be the increase in the proportion of people >65 years of age. These findings indicate that the "diabetes epidemic" will continue even if levels of obesity remain constant. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, it is likely that these figures provide an underestimate of future diabetes prevalence.
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            A sensitive and quick microplate method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of plant extracts for bacteria.

             J Eloff (1998)
            Agar diffusion techniques are used widely to assay plant extracts for antimicrobial activity, but there are problems associated with this technique. A micro-dilution technique was developed using 96-well microplates and tetrazolium salts to indicate bacterial growth. p-Iodonitrotetrazolium violet [0.2 mg/ml] gave better results than tetrazolium red or thiazolyl blue. The method is quick, worked well with Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli and with non-aqueous extracts from many different plants. The method gave reproducible results; required only 10-25 microliters of extract to determine minimal inhibitory concentrations, distinguished between microcidal and microstatic effects, and provided a permanent record of the results. Using S. aureus, and a Combretum molle extract, the technique was 32 times more sensitive than agar diffusion techniques and was not sensitive to culture age of the test organism up to 24 hours. The S. aureus culture could be stored up to 10 days in a cold room with little effect on the assay results. This method was useful in screening plants for antimicrobial activity and for the bioassay-guided isolation of antimicrobial compounds from plants. MIC values determined for sulfisoxazole, norfloxacin, gentamicin, and nitrofuratoin were similar to values indicated in the literature but values obtained with trimethroprim and ampicillin were higher with some bacteria.
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              Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism

              Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic β–cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

                Author and article information

                BMC Complement Altern Med
                BMC Complement Altern Med
                BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                31 March 2016
                31 March 2016
                : 16
                [ ]Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Phytomedicine Programme, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa
                [ ]Biomedical Research Centre, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa
                © Olaokun et al. 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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