The susceptibility of different geographical strains of Phlebotomus papatasi to a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) was determined experimentally by feeding polyhedra to larvae. Of the Indian P. papatasi, 15.6% became infected, whereas Egyptian P. papatasi were mostly refractory. Infection rates were not augmented in colony flies from the Jordan Valley, 23.8% of which were naturally infected with CPV. The infectivity of Serratia marcescens and Beauvaria bassiana to P. papatasi were determined experimentally. A suspension of B. bassiana spores or S. marcescens bacteria, ingested by P. papatasi in sucrose solution, did not significantly augment mortality rates or reduce the number of eggs oviposited. However, B. bassiana spores smeared on a filter paper constituting 1 or 5% of the surface area available to flies induced 100% mortality of P. papatasi on days 5 and 4, respectively. Mortality in Lutzomyia longipalpis reached 100% on day 4. There were markedly lower mortality rates in the control groups and more eggs were produced by these females (P. papatasi: control = 48.5; experimental = 0.9-1.6 eggs/female; L. longipalpis; control = 17.1; experimental = 0 eggs/female). From wild-caught Colombian Lutzomyia spp., a nonfluorescent pseudomonas, an Entomophthorales fungus, and a Trypanosomatid protozoon (probably Leptomonas) were isolated in culture media. Gregarines (Ascogregarina saraviae) and nematodes (Tylenchida and Spirurida) were also recorded. In laboratory-reared flies, an ectoparasitic fungus was associated with high mortality rates of first instar Lutzomyia spp. larvae. Opportunistic ectoparasitic aggregates of bacteria, yeast, and fungi on the tarsi of colonized L. longipalpis and P. papatasi hindered their mobility and were associated with reduced colony vigor. Aspergillus flavus, B. bassiana, and S. marcescens were isolated from laboratory-bred P. papatasi adults.