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      Assessment and pathophysiology of pain in cardiac surgery

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          Abstract

          Analysis of the problem of surgical pain is important in view of the fact that the success of surgical treatment depends largely on proper pain management during the first few days after a cardiosurgical procedure. Postoperative pain is due to intraoperative damage to tissue. It is acute pain of high intensity proportional to the type of procedure. The pain is most intense during the first 24 hours following the surgery and decreases on subsequent days. Its intensity is higher in younger subjects than elderly and obese patients, and preoperative anxiety is also a factor that increases postoperative pain. Ineffective postoperative analgesic therapy may cause several complications that are dangerous to a patient. Inappropriate postoperative pain management may result in chronic pain, immunosuppression, infections, and less effective wound healing. Understanding and better knowledge of physiological disorders and adverse effects resulting from surgical trauma, anesthesia, and extracorporeal circulation, as well as the development of standards for intensive postoperative care units are critical to the improvement of early treatment outcomes and patient comfort.

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          Most cited references 121

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          The short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire.

           R Melzack (1987)
          A short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) has been developed. The main component of the SF-MPQ consists of 15 descriptors (11 sensory; 4 affective) which are rated on an intensity scale as 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate or 3 = severe. Three pain scores are derived from the sum of the intensity rank values of the words chosen for sensory, affective and total descriptors. The SF-MPQ also includes the Present Pain Intensity (PPI) index of the standard MPQ and a visual analogue scale (VAS). The SF-MPQ scores obtained from patients in post-surgical and obstetrical wards and physiotherapy and dental departments were compared to the scores obtained with the standard MPQ. The correlations were consistently high and significant. The SF-MPQ was also shown to be sufficiently sensitive to demonstrate differences due to treatment at statistical levels comparable to those obtained with the standard form. The SF-MPQ shows promise as a useful tool in situations in which the standard MPQ takes too long to administer, yet qualitative information is desired and the PPI and VAS are inadequate.
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            Pain terms: a list with definitions and notes on usage. Recommended by the IASP Subcommittee on Taxonomy.

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              Pain and stress in a systems perspective: reciprocal neural, endocrine, and immune interactions.

              This paper advances a psychophysiological systems view of pain in which physical injury, or wounding, generates a complex stress response that extends beyond the nervous system and contributes to the experience of pain. Through a common chemical language comprising neurotransmitters, peptides, endocannabinoids, cytokines, and hormones, an ensemble of interdependent nervous, endocrine, and immune processes operates in concert to cope with the injury. These processes act as a single agent and comprise a supersystem. Acute pain in its multiple dimensions, and the related symptoms that commonly occur with it, are products of the supersystem. Chronic pain can develop as a result of unusual stress. Social stressors can compound the stress resulting from a wound or act alone to dysregulate the supersystem. When the supersystem suffers dysregulation, health, function, and sense of well-being suffer. Some chronic pain conditions are the product of supersystem dysregulation. Individuals vary and are vulnerable to dysregulation and dysfunction in particular organ systems due to the unique interactions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors, as well as the past experiences that characterize each person. Acute tissue injury activates an ensemble of interdependent nervous, endocrine, and immune processes that operate in concert and comprise a supersystem. Some chronic pain conditions result from supersystem dysregulation. Individuals vary and are vulnerable to dysregulation due to the unique interactions of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors and past experiences that characterize each person. This perspective can potentially assist clinicians in assessing and managing chronic pain patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2018
                24 August 2018
                : 11
                : 1599-1611
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Ulm Medical Center, Ulm, Germany, marek.zubrzycki@ 123456uniklinik-ulm.de
                [2 ]Department of Cardiac Anesthesiology, University of Ulm Medical Center, Ulm, Germany
                [3 ]Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Marek Zubrzycki, Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Ulm, 23 Albert Einstein Allee, Ulm 89081, Germany, Tel +49 7315 005 4411, Email marek.zubrzycki@ 123456uniklinik-ulm.de
                Article
                jpr-11-1599
                10.2147/JPR.S162067
                6112778
                © 2018 Zubrzycki et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                analgesics, cardiac surgery, pain intensity, postoperative pain

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