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      Demographic study of pituitary adenomas undergone trans-sphenoidal surgery in Loghman Hakim Hospital, Tehran, Iran 2001–2013

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are abnormal benign tumors that develop in the pituitary gland. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of different types of PAs with an indication for trans-sphenoidal surgery in a well-defined population referred to Loghman Hakim Hospital during 2001–2013.

          Subjects and Methods:

          In this retrospective study, the prevalence rate and symptoms associated with pituitary mass and hormone excess in operated patients were investigated. The diagnosis was verified after retrieval of clinical, hormonal, radiological, and pathological data. Demographic data were collected in all cases. Descriptive analysis, t-test, one-way analysis of variance and Fischer exacts test were used.

          Results:

          A total of 278 patients with PAs who underwent surgical interventions were evaluated. Most of the patients were aged 40–50 years with an average of 41 ± 14. The most prominent complaint was pressure effect, which was detected in 153 cases (55.2%). At the second place, hormonal disorders were observed in 125 cases (44.8%). Type of pituitary tumors were: Prolactinomas (29.1%), growth hormone (GH)-producing tumors (25%), nonfunctioning PAs (28.4%), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing tumors (2.1%), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)-producing tumors (0.7%), GH/prolactin (13.6%), GH/ACTH (0.3%), and TSH/ACTH (0.3%). Fifty-seven patients presented with recurrent adenomas. Pituitary apoplexy was found in 11 patients. One case of Sheehan syndrome was recorded among these. The correlations between clinical symptoms and patients, age and sex were not significant.

          Conclusion:

          The overview of demographic characteristics in Iranian patients with PAs with surgical indication has been discussed in the present investigation. The prevalence of different types of PAs and the most common clinical symptoms have been demonstrated.

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          Most cited references 27

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          The prevalence of pituitary adenomas: a systematic review.

          Pituitary adenomas display an array of hormonal and proliferative activity. Once primarily classified according to size (microadenomas, or = 1 cm), these tumors are now further classified according to immunohistochemistry and functional status. With these additional classifications in mind, the goals of the current study were to determine the prevalence of pituitary adenomas and to explore the clinical relevance of the findings. The authors conducted a metaanalysis of all existing English-language articles in MEDLINE. They used the search string (pituitary adenoma or pituitary tumor) and prevalence and selected relevant autopsy and imaging evaluation studies for inclusion. The authors found an overall estimated prevalence of pituitary adenomas of 16.7% (14.4% in autopsy studies and 22.5% in radiologic studies). Given the high frequency of pituitary adenomas and their potential for causing clinical pathologies, the findings of the current study suggest that early diagnosis and treatment of pituitary adenomas should have far-reaching benefits.
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            High prevalence of pituitary adenomas: a cross-sectional study in the province of Liege, Belgium.

            Prevalence data are important for assessing the burden of disease on the health care system; data on pituitary adenoma prevalence are very scarce. The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of clinically relevant pituitary adenomas in a well-defined population. This was a cross-sectional, intensive, case-finding study performed in three regions of the province of Liège, Belgium, to measure pituitary adenoma prevalence as of September 30, 2005. The study was conducted in specialist and general medical practitioner patient populations, referral hospitals, and investigational centers. Three demographically and geographically distinct districts of the province of Liège were delineated precisely using postal codes. Medical practitioners in these districts were recruited, and patients with pituitary adenomas under their care were identified. Diagnoses were confirmed after retrieval of clinical, hormonal, radiological, and pathological data; full demographic and therapeutic follow-up data were collected in all cases. Sixty-eight patients with clinically relevant pituitary adenomas were identified in a population of 71,972 individuals; the mean (+/- sd) prevalence was 94 +/- 19.3 cases per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval, 72.2 to 115.8). The group was 67.6% female and had a mean age at diagnosis of 40.3 yr; 42.6% had macroadenomas and 55.9% underwent surgery. Prolactinomas comprised 66% of the group, with the rest having nonsecreting tumors (14.7%), somatotropinomas (13.2%), or Cushing's disease (5.9%); 20.6% had hypopituitarism. The prevalence of pituitary adenomas in the study population (one case in 1064 individuals) was more than 3.5-5 times that previously reported. This increased prevalence may have important implications when prioritizing funding for research and treatment of pituitary adenomas.
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              Prevalence of pituitary adenomas: a community-based, cross-sectional study in Banbury (Oxfordshire, UK).

              Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The optimal delivery of services and the provision of care for patients with PAs require distribution of the resources proportionate to the impact of these conditions on the community. Currently, the resource allocation for PAs in the health care system is lacking a reliable and an up-to-date epidemiological background that would reflect the recent advances in the diagnostic technologies, leading to the earlier recognition of these tumours. To determine the prevalence, the diagnostic delay and the characteristics of patients with PA in a well-defined geographical area of the UK (Banbury, Oxfordshire). Sixteen general practitioner (GP) surgeries covering the area of Banbury and a total population of 89 334 inhabitants were asked to participate in the study (data confirmed on 31 July 2006). Fourteen surgeries with a total of 81,449 inhabitants (91% of the study population) agreed to take part. All cases of PAs were found following an exhaustive computer database search of agreed terms by the staff of each Practice and data on age, gender, presenting manifestations and their duration, imaging features at diagnosis, history of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and family history of PA were collected. A total of 63 patients with PA were identified amongst the study population of 81,149, with a prevalence of 77.6 PA cases/100,000 inhabitants (prolactinomas; PRLoma: 44.4, nonfunctioning PAs: 22.2, acromegaly; ACRO: 8.6, corticotroph adenoma: 1.2 and unknown functional status; UFS: 1.2/100,000 inhabitants). The distribution of each PA subtype was for PRLoma 57%, nonfunctioning PAs 28%, ACRO 11%, corticotroph adenoma 2% and UFS 2%. The median age at diagnosis and the duration of symptoms until diagnosis (in years) were for PRLoma 32.0 and 1.5, nonfunctioning PAs 51.5 and 0.8, ACRO 47 and 4.5 and corticotroph adenoma 57 and 7, respectively. PRLoma was the most frequent PA diagnosed up to the age of 60 years (0-20 years: 75% and 20-60 years: 61% of PAs) and nonfunctioning PA after the age of 60 years (60% of PAs). Nonfunctioning PAs dominated in men (57% of all men with PA) and PRLoma in women (76% of all women with PA). Five patients (7.9%) presented with classical pituitary apoplexy, with a prevalence of 6.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Based on a well-defined population in Banbury (Oxfordshire, UK), we have shown that PAs have a fourfold increased prevalence than previously thought; our data confirm that PAs have a higher burden on the Health Care System and optimal resource distribution for both clinical care and research activities aiming to improve the outcome of these patients are needed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian J Endocrinol Metab
                Indian J Endocrinol Metab
                IJEM
                Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                2230-8210
                2230-9500
                Nov-Dec 2015
                : 19
                : 6
                : 791-796
                Affiliations
                Department of Pathology, Loghman-Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [1 ] Department of Neurosurgery, Loghman-Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Dr. Farid Arman, Department of Pathology, Loghman-Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. E-mail: farid.arman@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                IJEM-19-791
                10.4103/2230-8210.167551
                4673808
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                Categories
                Original Article

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

                clinical symptoms, pituitary adenomas, prevalence

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