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      Taxonomic comments on the treatment of the Zygaenidae (Lepidoptera) in volume 3 of Moths of Europe, Zygaenids, Pyralids 1 and Brachodids (2012)

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      Nota Lepidopterologica

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Critical taxonomic comments are provided on the section dealing with the Zygaenidae in volume 3 of Moths of Europe (Leraut 2012). A number of newly described nominal taxa in that work are here synonymised as are nominal subgenera and subspecies that were reinstated as valid. At the subgeneric level these are Hesychia Hübner, [1819] (syn. rev.), Coelestis Burgeff, 1926 (syn. rev.) and Santolinophaga Burgeff, 1926 (syn. rev.), all synonyms of the monophyletic subgenus Mesembrynus Hübner, [1819], and Coelestina Holik, 1953 (syn. rev.), Epizygaena Jordan, 1907 (syn. rev.) and Lictoria Burgeff, 1926 (syn. rev.), all synonyms of the paraphyletic subgenus Agrumenia Hübner, [1819]. At the subspecific level Adscita geryon parisiensis Leraut, 2012 (syn. n.) and A. geryon aeris (Verity, 1946) (syn. rev.) are synonyms of A. geryon geryon (Hübner, [1813]). Zygaena exulans altaretensis Le Charles, 1942 (syn. rev.) and Z. exulans bourgognei Le Charles, 1942 (syn. rev.) are synonyms of Z. exulans exulans (Hohenwarth, 1792). Zygaena trifolii vindilisensis Leraut, 2012 (syn. n.) is a synonym of Z. trifolii subsyracusia Verity, 1925. Zygaena carniolica besseensis Leraut, 2012 (syn. n.) and Z. carniolica rogervillensis Leraut, 2012 (syn. n.) are synonyms of Z. carniolica modesta Burgeff, 1914. Zygaena hilaris nigriventris Leraut, 2012 (syn. n.) is a synonym of Z. hilaris chrysophaea Le Charles, [1934]. Zygaena rhadamanthus boixolsis Aistleitner, 1990 (syn. n.) is a synonym of Z. rhadamanthus rhadamanthus Esper, [1789], Z. rhadamanthus cleui Dujardin, 1956 (syn. rev.) is a synonym of Z. rhadamanthus grisea Oberthür, 1909, and Z. rhadamanthus aragonia Tremewan, 1961 (stat. rev.), Z. rhadamanthus azurea Burgeff, 1914 (stat. rev.) and Z. rhadamanthus aurargentea Mazel, 1979 (stat. rev.) are reinstated as valid subspecies.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness

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            Higher phylogeny of zygaenid moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data and the evolution of larval cuticular cavities for chemical defence.

            Zygaenid moths are capable of releasing hydrogen cyanide in their defense by enzymatic break-down of cyanoglucosides, but only larvae of chalcosiine and zygaenine moths store cyanogenic compounds in cuticular cavities and thus are able to discharge defense droplets, which effectively deter potential predators. A previously proposed phylogeny of Zygaenidae hypothesized a sister group relationship of chalcosiine and zygaenine moths because of their similar larval defense system. Not all chalcosiine taxa possess cuticular cavities, however, and a comparable defense mechanism has been reported in larvae of the zygaenoid family Heterogynidae. Considering sequence data of seven molecular loci, the present study estimates the posterior probability of phylogenetic hypotheses explaining the occurrence of larval cuticular cavities. The molecular data confirm the previous exclusion of Himantopteridae from Zygaenidae and suggest their close affinity to Somabrachyidae. The sequence data also corroborate the recently proposed exclusion of the Phaudinae from the Zygaenidae, because this subfamily is recovered in a reasonably well supported species cluster consisting of members of the families Lacturidae, Limacodidae, Himantopteridae, and Somabrachyidae. We consequently agree to raise Phaudinae to family rank. Within Zygaenidae, the subfamilies Callizygaeninae, Chalcosiinae, and Procridinae most likely constitute a monophyletic group, which is sister to the Zygaeninae. Our results imply that cuticular cavities were probably present in the larvae of the most recent common ancestor of Zygaenidae. Heterogynidae cannot be confirmed as sister taxon to this family, but appear at the very first split of the Zygaenoidea, although with poor support. The specific pattern of taxa in the molecular phylogeny showing larval cuticular cavities opens the possibility that these structures could have been already present in the most recent common ancestor of the Zygaenoidea.
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              Evolutionary history of the burnet moth genus Zygaena Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data: phylogeny, host-plant association, wing pattern evolution and historical biogeography: EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF THE GENUS ZYGAENA

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nota Lepidopterologica
                NL
                Pensoft Publishers
                2367-5365
                0342-7536
                September 08 2014
                September 08 2014
                : 37
                : 2
                : 123-133
                Article
                10.3897/nl.37.7940
                © 2014
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