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      A thread/fabric-based band as a flexible and wearable microfluidic device for sweat sensing and monitoring

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          Thread/fabric-based microfluidic device for sweat sensing and monitoring.


          Flexible biosensors for monitoring systems have emerged as a promising portable diagnostics platform due to their potential for in situ point-of-care (POC) analytic devices. Assessment of biological analytes in sweat can provide essential information for human physiology. Conventional measurements rely on laboratory equipment. This work exploits an alternative approach for epidermal sweat sensing and detection through a wearable microfluidic thread/fabric-based analytical device (μTFAD). This μTFAD is a flexible and skin-mounted band that integrates hydrophilic dot-patterns with a hydrophobic surface via embroidering thread into fabric. After chromogenic reaction treatment, the thread-embroidered patterns serve as the detection zones for sweat transferred by the hydrophilic threads, enabling precise analysis of local sweat loss, pH and concentrations of chloride and glucose in sweat. Colorimetric reference markers embroidered surrounding the working dots provide accurate data readout either by apparent color comparison or by digital acquirement through smartphone-assisted calibration plots. On-body tests were conducted on five healthy volunteers. Detection results of pH, chloride and glucose in sweat from the volunteers were 5.0–6.0, 25–80 mM and 50–200 μM by apparent color comparison with reference markers through direct visual observation. Similar results of 5.47–6.30, 50–77 mM and 47–66 μM for pH, chloride and glucose were obtained through calibration plots based on the RGB values from the smartphone app Lanse®. The limit of detection (LOD) is 10 mM for chloride concentration, 4.0–9.0 for pH and 10 μM for glucose concentration, respectively. For local sweat loss, it is found that the forehead is the region of heavy sweat loss. Sweat secretion is a cumulating process with a lower sweat rate at the beginning which increases as body movement continues along with increased heat production. These results demonstrate the capability and availability of our sensing device for quantitative detection of multiple biomarkers in sweat, suggesting the great potential for development of feasible non-invasive biosensors, with a similar performance to conventional measurements.

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          A soft, wearable microfluidic device for the capture, storage, and colorimetric sensing of sweat

          Capabilities in health monitoring via capture and quantitative chemical analysis of sweat could complement, or potentially obviate the need for, approaches based on sporadic assessment of blood samples. Established sweat monitoring technologies use simple fabric swatches and are limited to basic analysis in controlled laboratory or hospital settings. We present a collection of materials and device designs for soft, flexible and stretchable microfluidic systems, including embodiments that integrate wireless communication electronics, which can intimately and robustly bond to the surface of skin without chemical and mechanical irritation. This integration defines access points for a small set of sweat glands such that perspiration spontaneously initiates routing of sweat through a microfluidic network and set of reservoirs. Embedded chemical analyses respond in colorimetric fashion to markers such as chloride and hydronium ions, glucose and lactate. Wireless interfaces to digital image capture hardware serve as a means for quantitation. Human studies demonstrated the functionality of this microfluidic device during fitness cycling in a controlled environment and during long-distance bicycle racing in arid, outdoor conditions. The results include quantitative values for sweat rate, total sweat loss, pH and concentration of both chloride and lactate.
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            Wearable/disposable sweat-based glucose monitoring device with multistage transdermal drug delivery module

            A sweat-based glucose monitoring device with transdermal drug delivery is developed for noninvasive diabetes treatment.
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              Wearable sensors: modalities, challenges, and prospects.

              Wearable sensors have recently seen a large increase in both research and commercialization. However, success in wearable sensors has been a mix of both progress and setbacks. Most of commercial progress has been in smart adaptation of existing mechanical, electrical and optical methods of measuring the body. This adaptation has involved innovations in how to miniaturize sensing technologies, how to make them conformal and flexible, and in the development of companion software that increases the value of the measured data. However, chemical sensing modalities have experienced greater challenges in commercial adoption, especially for non-invasive chemical sensors. There have also been significant challenges in making significant fundamental improvements to existing mechanical, electrical, and optical sensing modalities, especially in improving their specificity of detection. Many of these challenges can be understood by appreciating the body's surface (skin) as more of an information barrier than as an information source. With a deeper understanding of the fundamental challenges faced for wearable sensors and of the state-of-the-art for wearable sensor technology, the roadmap becomes clearer for creating the next generation of innovations and breakthroughs.

                Author and article information

                Lab on a Chip
                Lab Chip
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                March 9 2021
                : 21
                : 5
                : 916-932
                [1 ]School of Textile Science and Engineering
                [2 ]Tiangong University
                [3 ]Tianjin 300387
                [4 ]China
                [5 ]Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composites
                © 2021


                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=D0LC01075H


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