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      Noninvasive monitoring intracranial pressure – A review of available modalities

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is important in many neurosurgical and neurological patients. The gold standard for monitoring ICP, however, is via an invasive procedure resulting in the placement of an intraventricular catheter, which is associated with many risks. Several noninvasive ICP monitoring techniques have been examined with the hope to replace the invasive techniques. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of all modalities that have been used for noninvasive ICP monitoring to date.

          Methods:

          A thorough literature search was conducted on PubMed, selected articles were reviewed in completion, and pertinent data was included in the review.

          Results:

          A total of 94 publications were reviewed, and we found that over the past few decades clinicians have attempted to use a number of modalities to monitor ICP noninvasively.

          Conclusion:

          Although the intraventricular catheter remains the gold standard for monitoring ICP, several noninvasive modalities that can be used in settings when invasive monitoring is not possible are also available. In our opinion, measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter and pupillometry are the two modalities which may prove to be valid options for centers not performing invasive ICP monitoring.

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          Most cited references 91

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          Noninvasive transcranial Doppler ultrasound recording of flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries.

          In this report the authors describe a noninvasive transcranial method of determining the flow velocities in the basal cerebral arteries. Placement of the probe of a range-gated ultrasound Doppler instrument in the temporal area just above the zygomatic arch allowed the velocities in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) to be determined from the Doppler signals. The flow velocities in the proximal anterior (ACA) and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries were also recorded at steady state and during test compression of the common carotid arteries. An investigation of 50 healthy subjects by this transcranial Doppler method revealed that the velocity in the MCA, ACA, and PCA was 62 +/- 12, 51 +/0 12, and 44 +/- 11 cm/sec, respectively. This method is of particular value for the detection of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage and for evaluating the cerebral circulation in occlusive disease of the carotid and vertebral arteries.
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            The Monro-Kellie hypothesis: applications in CSF volume depletion.

             B Mokri (2001)
            More than two centuries ago, Alexander Monro applied some of the principles of physics to the intracranial contents and for the first time hypothesized that the blood circulating in the cranium was of constant volume at all times. This hypothesis was supported by experiments by Kellie. In its original form, the hypothesis had shortcomings that prompted modification by others. What finally came to be known as the Monro-Kellie doctrine, or hypothesis, is that the sum of volumes of brain, CSF, and intracranial blood is constant. An increase in one should cause a decrease in one or both of the remaining two. This hypothesis has substantial theoretical implications in increased intracranial pressure and in decreased CSF volume. Many of the MRI abnormalities seen in intracranial hypotension or CSF volume depletion can be explained by the Monro-Kellie hypothesis. These abnormalities include meningeal enhancement, subdural fluid collections, engorgement of cerebral venous sinuses, prominence of the spinal epidural venous plexus, and enlargement of the pituitary gland.
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              Emergency department sonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter to detect findings of increased intracranial pressure in adult head injury patients.

              Our objective is to determine whether a bedside ultrasonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter can accurately predict the computed tomographic (CT) findings of elevated intracranial pressure in adult head injury patients in the emergency department (ED). We conducted a prospective, blinded observational study on adult ED patients with suspected intracranial injury with possible elevated intracranial pressure. Exclusion criteria were age younger than 18 years or obvious ocular trauma. Using a 7.5-MHz ultrasonographic probe on the closed eyelids, a single optic nerve sheath diameter was measured 3 mm behind the globe in each eye. A mean binocular optic nerve sheath diameter greater than 5.00 mm was considered abnormal. Cranial CT findings of shift, edema, or effacement suggestive of elevated intracranial pressure were used to evaluate optic nerve sheath diameter accuracy. Fifty-nine patients were enrolled in the study. Average age was 38 years, and median Glasgow Coma Scale score was 15 (interquartile 6 to 15). Eight patients with an optic nerve sheath diameter of 5.00 mm or more had CT findings that correlated with elevated intracranial pressure. The sensitivity for the ultrasonography in detecting elevated intracranial pressure was 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] 68% to 100%) and specificity was 63% (95% CI 50% to 76%). The sensitivity of ultrasonography for detection of any traumatic intracranial injury found by CT was 84% (95% CI 60% to 97%) and specificity was 73% (95% CI 59% to 86%). Bedside ED optic nerve sheath diameter ultrasonography has potential as a sensitive screening test for elevated intracranial pressure in adult head injury.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Surg Neurol Int
                Surg Neurol Int
                SNI
                Surgical Neurology International
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                2229-5097
                2152-7806
                2017
                05 April 2017
                : 8
                Affiliations
                Aga Khan University, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
                [1 ]Endovascular Research Fellow, University of Buffalo Neurosurgery, Buffalo, New York, USA
                [2 ]Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
                [3 ]Division of Neurosurgery, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author
                Article
                SNI-8-51
                10.4103/sni.sni_403_16
                5402331
                Copyright: © 2017 Surgical Neurology International

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                Categories
                General Neurosurgery: Review Article

                Surgery

                noninvasive, intracranial pressure monitoring, intracranial pressure

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