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      Green in times of COVID-19: urban green space relevance during the COVID-19 pandemic in Buenos Aires City

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          Abstract

          The COVID-19 pandemic has had a deep impact on the way we perceive our world. This study explores its effect on Urban Green Space (UGS) perception in Buenos Aires City (CABA), Argentina. We provide a detailed overview of the distribution of UGS in CABA, along with socio-economic analysis and visitors' profile and perception before and during the restrictive measures adopted by the national authorities to contain the COVID-19 outbreak (July to December of 2020). We conducted a series of surveys based on open and closed questions. Before the pandemic, surveys were carried out in situ in eight parks of six districts, randomly chosen. During the confinement, online surveys were conducted. According to our results, the mean UGS density in CABA is 6.09 m 2 /person, but marked differences between districts exist, ranging from 0.02 m 2 /person to 17.68 m 2 /person. This uneven distribution causes differences in the quality of life of CABA inhabitants, perhaps more pronounced during reduced-mobility situations like COVID-19 confinement. Socio economic analysis were done linking multidimensional poverty, COVID-19 positive cases and urban mobility in CABA. Regarding UGS visitors, before the confinement, the majority of respondents were employees or students; during the confinement, employees and retirees predominated. When asked to choose important attributes to describe their perception about the UGS from a given list, respondents selected “calm,” “green,” and “sounds of nature,” without differences before and during the confinement. However, when asked about the UGS role, the main answer was “a place to be with nature” before the confinement and “an important place in the city” during it. Understanding how society perceives the UGS, especially during crises, is essential to rethink the urban landscape and prepare our cities, towards biophilic cities and for a more sustainable future.

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          Most cited references28

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          The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence

          Summary The December, 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak has seen many countries ask people who have potentially come into contact with the infection to isolate themselves at home or in a dedicated quarantine facility. Decisions on how to apply quarantine should be based on the best available evidence. We did a Review of the psychological impact of quarantine using three electronic databases. Of 3166 papers found, 24 are included in this Review. Most reviewed studies reported negative psychological effects including post-traumatic stress symptoms, confusion, and anger. Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma. Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects. In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favourable.
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            COVID-19 and African Americans

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              The psychological impact of COVID-19 on the mental health in the general population

              Abstract As a result of the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the Chinese city of Wuhan, a situation of socio-economic crisis and profound psychological distress rapidly occurred worldwide. Various psychological problems and important consequences in terms of mental health including stress, anxiety, depression, frustration, uncertainty during COVID-19 outbreak emerged progressively. This work aimed to comprehensively review the current literature about the impact of COVID-19 infection on the mental health in the general population. The psychological impact of quarantine related to COVID-19 infection has been additionally documented together with the most relevant psychological reactions in the general population related to COVID-19 outbreak. The role of risk and protective factors against the potential to develop psychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals has been addressed as well. The main implications of the present findings have been discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                marconi.patricialaura@maimonides.edu
                patriperelman@gmail.com
                vani.salgado@gmail.com
                Journal
                Urban Ecosyst
                Urban Ecosyst
                Urban Ecosystems
                Springer US (New York )
                1083-8155
                1573-1642
                26 January 2022
                : 1-13
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.423606.5, ISNI 0000 0001 1945 2152, Universidad Maimónides, CONICET, ; Hidalgo 775, C1405BCJ, TE 4905-1249, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [2 ]GRID grid.7345.5, ISNI 0000 0001 0056 1981, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales-CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, CABA, ; Av. Ángel Gallardo 470(54) (11) 15.3575.9445, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [3 ]GRID grid.459814.5, ISNI 0000 0000 9653 9457, División Plantas Vasculares, , Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales-CONICET, CABA, ; Av. Ángel Gallardo 470 (54) (11) 15.3575.9445, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8862-7390
                Article
                1204
                10.1007/s11252-022-01204-z
                8790949
                35095260
                5a2447cf-bcae-4d8c-82f9-d602b0cf6aec
                © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2022

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                History
                : 13 January 2022
                Categories
                Article

                landscape,perception,urban green space,biophilic cities,covid-19

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