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      Morris water maze: procedures for assessing spatial and related forms of learning and memory.

      Nature protocols

      Animals, Water, physiology, Swimming, Spatial Behavior, Rats, Psychomotor Performance, Mice, Memory, Maze Learning, Cues

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          Abstract

          The Morris water maze (MWM) is a test of spatial learning for rodents that relies on distal cues to navigate from start locations around the perimeter of an open swimming arena to locate a submerged escape platform. Spatial learning is assessed across repeated trials and reference memory is determined by preference for the platform area when the platform is absent. Reversal and shift trials enhance the detection of spatial impairments. Trial-dependent, latent and discrimination learning can be assessed using modifications of the basic protocol. Search-to-platform area determines the degree of reliance on spatial versus non-spatial strategies. Cued trials determine whether performance factors that are unrelated to place learning are present. Escape from water is relatively immune from activity or body mass differences, making it ideal for many experimental models. The MWM has proven to be a robust and reliable test that is strongly correlated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function. We present protocols for performing variants of the MWM test, from which results can be obtained from individual animals in as few as 6 days.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          17406317
          10.1038/nprot.2006.116
          2895266

          Chemistry

          Animals, Water, physiology, Swimming, Spatial Behavior, Rats, Psychomotor Performance, Mice, Memory, Maze Learning, Cues

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