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      Mechanical Unloading of the Failing Human Heart Fails to Activate the Protein Kinase B/Akt/Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Survival Pathway

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          Abstract

          Background: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support of the failing human heart improves myocyte function and increases cell survival. One potential mechanism underlying this phenomenon is activation of the protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3β) survival pathway. Methods and Results: Left ventricular tissue was obtained both at the time of implantation and explantation of the LVAD (n = 11). Six patients were diagnosed with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, 4 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and 1 patient with peripartum cardiomyopathy. The mean duration of LVAD support was 205 ± 35 days. Myocyte diameter and phosphorylation of ERK were used as indices for reverse remodeling. Transcript levels of genes required for the activation of PKB/Akt (insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin receptor substrate-1) were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, we measured the relative activity of PKB/Akt and GSK-3β, and assayed for molecular and histological indices of PKB/Akt activation (cyclooxygenase mRNA levels and glycogen levels). Myocyte diameter and phosphorylation of ERK decreased with LVAD support. In contrast, none of the components of the PKB/Akt/GSK-3β pathway changed significantly with mechanical unloading. Conclusion: The PKB/Akt/GSK-3β pathway is not activated during LVAD support. Other signaling pathways must be responsible for the improvement of cellular function and cell survival during LVAD support.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Ten years of protein kinase B signalling: a hard Akt to follow.

          It is ten years since the publication of three papers describing the cloning of a new proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase termed protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt. Key roles for this protein kinase in cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, transcription and cell migration are now well established. The explosion of publications involving PKB/Akt in the past three years emphasizes the high level of current interest in this signalling molecule. This review focuses on tracing the characterization of this kinase, through the elucidation of its mechanism of regulation, to its role in regulating physiological and pathophysiological processes, to our current understanding of the biology of PKB/Akt, and prospects for the future.
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            Inhibition of early apoptotic events by Akt/PKB is dependent on the first committed step of glycolysis and mitochondrial hexokinase.

            The serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB is a major downstream effector of growth factor-mediated cell survival. Activated Akt, like Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, prevents closure of a PT pore component, the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC); intracellular acidification; mitochondrial hyperpolarization; and the decline in oxidative phosphorylation that precedes cytochrome c release. However, unlike Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, the ability of activated Akt to preserve mitochondrial integrity, and thereby inhibit apoptosis, requires glucose availability and is coupled to its metabolism. Hexokinases are known to bind to VDAC and directly couple intramitochondrial ATP synthesis to glucose metabolism. We provide evidence that such coupling serves as a downstream effector function for Akt. First, Akt increases mitochondria-associated hexokinase activity. Second, the antiapoptotic activity of Akt requires only the first committed step of glucose metabolism catalyzed by hexokinase. Finally, ectopic hexokinase expression mimics the ability of Akt to inhibit cytochrome c release and apoptosis. We therefore propose that Akt increases coupling of glucose metabolism to oxidative phosphorylation and regulates PT pore opening via the promotion of hexokinase-VDAC interaction at the outer mitochondrial membrane.
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              CREB is a regulatory target for the protein kinase Akt/PKB.

               M Montminy,  Zhao Du (1998)
              The nuclear factor CREB stimulates the expression of cellular genes following its protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation at Ser-133. Ser-133 phosphorylation, in turn, activates target gene expression by promoting recruitment of the co-activator CBP. Recent studies showing that CREB and its paralog CREM are required for survival of certain cell types prompted us to examine whether CREB is a nuclear target for activation via the growth factor-dependent Ser/Thr kinase Akt/PKB. When overexpressed in serum-stimulated cells, Akt/PKB potently induced Ser-133 phosphorylation of CREB and promoted recruitment of CBP. Correspondingly, Akt/PKB stimulated target gene expression via CREB in a phospho(Ser-133)-dependent manner. Akt/PKB induced CREB activity only in response to serum stimulation, and this effect was suppressed by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY 294002. Our results support the notion that Akt/PKB promotes cell survival, at least in part, by stimulating the expression of cellular genes via the CREB/CBP nuclear transduction pathway.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2003
                September 2003
                22 September 2003
                : 100
                : 1
                : 17-22
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Cardiology, University of Texas-Houston Medical School, bSection of Cardiovascular Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, cSt. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital and Texas Heart Institute, Houston, Tex., USA
                Article
                72387 Cardiology 2003;100:17–22
                10.1159/000072387
                12975541
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 28, Pages: 6
                Categories
                General Cardiology – Basic Science

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